بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
وَ بِهِ نَسْتَعِينُ
اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ وَ الصَّلاَةُ وَ السَّلاَمُ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ وَ عَلَى آلِهِ وَ صَحْبِهِ اَجْمَعِينَ
WHAT IS NECESSITY - DHARÛRAH?
(Please refer to the dictionary for the explanation of the literal meaning and a brief definition of dharûrah as a Sharî’ah term.)
“The rule of اِنَّ الضَّرُورَاتِ تُبِيحُ الْمَحْظُورَاتِ that is “Dharûrah makes halal, what is haram”. Thus, this rule is not universal. So long as dharûrah does not occur by way of haram, it is the cause to make haram halal. Otherwise, if something has become dharûrah due to misuse of the will and for illicit reasons, it cannot make halal what is haram, this dharûrah may not be the basis of ordinances by rukhsah and may not constitute an excuse. For example, if through misuse of the will, someone makes himself drunk in a haram way, according to ‘ulamâ of the Sharî’ah, his actions act against him and he may not be accepted as excused. If he divorces his wife, the divorce is in force. And if he commits a crime, he receives the penalty. But if it is not through misuse of the will, the divorce is not in force, neither does he receive any penalty. And, for example, even one who is addicted to alcohol to the degree of dharûrah may not say: "It is a dharûrah and halal for me."
Thus, at this time there are many matters which have reached the degree of dharûrah and have taken the form of a general calamity which make people addicted to them. Since they have emerged from misuse of the will, illicit inclinations and haram acts, they may not make halal what is haram through being the basis of ordinances by rukhsah. Whereas, since ahl al-ijtihâd of the present time make those dharûrahs the basis for the ordinances of Sharî’ah, their ijtihâd are earthly, they arise from the desires, philosophic, they cannot be sâmâwî and are not from the Sharî’ah. Whereas, if ma’nawî permission of Al-Khâliq is not existent, the disposal concerning the Ilahî ordinances of Al-Khâliq of the samâwât and the Earth and interference in the ‘ibâdah of His ‘abds are rejected.” The Twenty-Seventh Word/The Third/The Fifth
“Yes, there are two sorts of rizq:
One is haqîqî rizq that one will live with it. This rizq is guaranteed by Ar-Rabb by the decree of this âyah1 . So long as one’s misuse of his will does not interfere, he may find this essential rizq under any circumstances. One will not be compelled to sacrifice his religion, or his honour, or his dignity.
The second sort is metaphorical rizq that one cannot abandon due to inessential needs becoming like essential ones through bad use and being addicted to it through the calamity of custom and tradition. Since this rizq is not guaranteed by Ar-Rabb, obtaining this rizq, especially at this time, is very expensive. One takes this inauspicious good without barakah by first of all sacrificing his honour and accepting abasement, and sometimes degrading to the situation of beggary in a ma’nawî manner, as much as kissing the feet of the vile, and sometimes sacrificing the sacred matters of religion, which are the nûr of eternal life.
Also, at this time of poverty and necessity, the sorrow which the people of conscience experience for the anguish of the hungry and needy by means of the feeling of compassion for mankind -if one has a conscience- sours the pleasure to be had from the money which is acquired illicitly. It is necessary to suffice one’s self with doubtful goods to the degree of dharûrah in such a strange time. For through the mystery, اِنَّ الضَّرُورَةَ تُقَدَّرُ بِقَدْرِهَا ,2 with necessity, one may take from haram goods to the degree of dharûrah, and may not take more. Yes, one who is in dire need may not eat haram meat to fill his stomach. Rather, one may only eat enough not to die. Also, more cannot be eaten with unspoilt pleasure in the presence of a hundred hungry people.” The Nineteenth Flash/4th Point
“There is one more matter. That is also important. According to the injunctions of the Qur’an, in this age as a result of the requisites of vile civilization, essential needs have risen from four to twenty. Through addiction, custom and habit inessential needs have become equivalent to essential needs. Despite carrying îmân in the âkhirah, saying “there being dharûrah” and supposing it as dharûrah, people prefer this world to the âkhirah for the benefits of the world and the livelihood. Forty years ago, a commander-in-chief sent some high-ranking officers and even some hojas to me in order to accustom me to the world a little. They told me: “At the present time we have no choice. Due to the rule: اِنَّ الضَّرُورَاتِ تُبِيحُ الْمَحْظُورَاتِ 3 , we are now compelled to imitate some of the fundamental points of Europe and some of the requisites of civilization.” So I said to them: “You are seriously deceived. If dharûrah arises as a result of misuse of the will, it certainly is not right. It does not change what is haram into halal. If it does not arise from misuse of the will, that is, if the dharûrah has not arisen due to haram, it is not harmful. For example, if through misuse of the will, a man gets himself drunk in a way that is haram and commits a crime while he is drunk, the judgement will be made against him. He will not be considered excused and will receive penalty. For this dharûrah has resulted from the misuse of his will. But if an insane child shoots someone when in a state of insanity, he is excused; he will receive no penalty, because it was not within his will.” Thus, I said to that commander and those hojas: “What other dharûrahs are there other than the essential needs like eating bread and live? Actions which arise from misuse of the will, illicit inclinations and haram dealings cannot be a reason to make what is haram, halal. If one became addicted to things like the cinema, theatre and dance since there is not absolute dharûrah and they arise from misuse of the will, it may not be a reason for making the haram halal.4 Human laws have also taken this point into consideration that it has differentiated the laws between definite dharûrah outside of the human will and the actions arising from misuse of the will. In Ilahî laws these principles are differentiated in a more firm and fundamental fashion.” Emirdağ Addendum-2 (242-243)
“On the basis of only absolute dharûrah, there is rukhsah within the Sharî’ah to prefer what is glass (such as this world and wealth) over what is clearly known as diamond (such as the âkhirah and îmân). Otherwise, to make this preference based on a minor need, a fancy or greed and slight fear, is a foolish ignorance and loss that is deserving of a slap.” Kastamonu Addendum (33)
“The Second Matter: In the pronouncement of the sign of the Thirty-third âyah, in the discussion of يَسْتَحِبُّونَ الْحَيٰوةَ الدُّنْيَا it is said: One of the features of this century is such that it knowingly makes one prefer the life of this world over the life of the eternal world. That is, it has become a principle for people to knowingly prefer broken pieces of glass to eternal diamonds. I used to be amazed at this. It has been warned in recent days that:
Just like when a human organ is ill or is injured, all other organs in the body partly hold off their own duties and run to its aid. In the same way, a device inbuilt in human fitrah that carries within it the greed for life and its preservation, the pleasure of life and its love, has been injured due to many reasons. It has started to debase all other faculties by preoccupying them within itself and is trying to make them forget their own actual duties.
And if there were an attractive, dissolute and glamorous stupefying form of entertainment, like children and layabouts, people occupying high positions and covered women even, would be caught up with the attraction and will suspend their actual duties to take part in them. In the same way, human life in this century and its social life, in particular, has taken such a terrifying, but attractive and grievous, yet curious state, that it drags humanity’s elevated duties, its heart and mind to follow the nafs al-ammarah and, like a propeller, pushes them into the fire of fitnah.
Indeed, in order to preserve the life of this world – on the condition, it is due to dharûrah– there is rukhsah in the Sharî’ah to temporarily prefer it over some of the matters relating to the âkhirah. But if the cause is only a simple need, for which the harm in abandonment does not lead to being perished, this preference can not be made; there is not rukhsah. Whereas this century has injected that to the man’s vein of character to such a degree that for the smallest of needs and the most insignificant harm to worldly life, matters of the religion, which are like diamonds, are abandoned.
Within humanity, the vein of living this worldly life and the inherent faculty of preserving this life has been wounded and corrupted through wastefulness. And the lack of frugality, the discontentment and greed in this century, has led to the withdrawal of barakah and has caused the rise in poverty and intensified the struggle for livelihood. The people of dhalâlah constantly make this temporary world the point of attraction to such a degree that the slightest need in this worldly life is given precedence over important matters of religion. In response to this strange illness and terrible affliction of this strange century, it is the Risale-i Nur which is the herald of the antidote-like remedies of the Quran of Miraculous Exposition that can withstand it; and it is its firm steadfast, sincere, loyal and sacrificing students who are able to resist it. Thus, in order to save themselves from the effects of this strange illness, one must foremost enter the circle of the Risale-i Nur and stick to it with loyalty, steadfastness, utmost ikhlas and complete confidence.
We pass on our salam and du'â to each of our brothers in general.
اَلْبَاقِى هُوَ الْبَاقِى
Kastamonu Addendum (116-117)
1 (Qur'an, 11:6.)
2 (dharûrah is determined according to its extent)
3 (dharûrah makes permissible what is prohibited)
4 “There is a riwâyât: "The fitnah of the âkhirzaman will be so terrible that no one will be able to restrain their nafs." It is because of this that for one thousand three hundred years, on the command of the Prophet (asm), all the Ummah has sought refuge with Allah from that fitnah, the phrase of مِنْ فِتْنَةِ الدَّجَّالِ وَ مِنْ فِتْنَةِ آخِرِ الزَّمَانِ (from the fitnah of the dajjal and from the fitnah of the âkhirzaman) became the wird of the Ummah after seeking refuge from the torments of the grave.
Allahu a'lam bissawab (Allah knows what is best) an interpretation of it is like this: the fitnahs will draw nufûs to itself, captivating them. People will join it voluntarily, indeed, eagerly. For example, in Russia, men and women bathe naked together in public baths. And because by fitrah women have a strong propensity to show off their beauty, they willingly throw themselves into that fitnah and are led astray. The men too, by their fitrah enamoured of beauty, are defeated by their nafs, and with drunken joy, fall into the fire and are burnt. Holding a fascination, the amusements, kabâir and bid’ahs of the times such as dancing and the theatre, draw those who perform ‘ibâdah to their nafs around them like moths, intoxicating them. But if this occurs through absolute compulsion, the will is negated and it is not even a sin.” The Rays ( 105 )