اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ وَ الصَّلاَةُ وَ السَّلاَمُ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ وَ عَلَى آلِهِ وَ صَحْبِهِ اَجْمَعِينَ
AL-‘ADL - العدل
“Al-ism al-â’dham is not the same for everyone; it differs. For example, concerning Imam ‘Ali (ra) it was the six Names of Al-Fard, Al-Hayy, Al-Qayyûm, Al-Hakam, Al-‘Adl and Al-Quddûs. And Imam al-Â’dham’s1 ism al-â’dham was two Names; Al-Hakam and Al-‘Adl. And Ghawth al- Â’dham’s2 ism al-â’dham was Al-Hayy. And Imam Ar-Rabbani’s ism al-â’dham was Al-Qayyûm, and so on; many other people considered Al-ism al-â’dham to be different Names.” The Thirtieth Flash/The Fifth Point/Conclusion
The Second Subtle Point of the Thirtieth Flash
وَاِنْ مِنْ شَيْءٍ اِلاَّ عِنْدَنَا خَزَائِنُهُ وَمَا نُنَزِّلُهُ اِلاَّ بِقَدَرٍ مَعْلُومٍ 3
One subtle point concerning this âyah and one manifestation of the Name of ‘Adl, which is an Ism al-â’dham or one of the six nûrs of Al-ism al-â’dham, like the First Subtle Point, appeared to me from afar while in Eskişehir Prison. In order to bring it closer to the understanding, again by means of a comparison, we say the following:
The universe is a palace, but it is such a palace that in it is a city which is being constantly shaken by destruction and reconstruction. And in the city is a country which is being continuously agitated by war and emigration. And within the country is an ‘âlam which is unceasingly revolving amid death and life. But such an astonishing equilibrium, balance and equilibration prevail in the palace, city, country and ‘âlam that it self-evidently proves that the transformations, incomings and outgoings apparent in these innumerable beings are being measured and weighed every moment on the scales of a Single Being Who sees and supervises the whole universe.
For if it had been otherwise, if causes had been free and unrestrained, which try to destroy the balance and overrun everything, through a single fish laying a thousand eggs and a single flower like a poppy producing twenty thousand seeds, and through the elements flowing in floods and the causes that try to invade and destroy the balance by onslaught of changes, or if it had been referred to aimless, purposeless chance, unbalanced blind forces, and unconscious dark Nature, the balance of beings and balance of the universe would have been so utterly destroyed that within a year, indeed within a day, there would have been chaos. That is, the seas would have been filled with things in total disorder and confusion and would have become fetid; the atmosphere would have been poisoned with noxious gases; and as for the earth, it would have turned into a refuse-heap, slaughter-house, and swamp. The world would have suffocated.
Thus, everything from the cells of an animate body, the red and white corpuscles in the blood, the transformations of particles, and the mutual proportion and relation of the body's organs, to the incomings and outgoings of the seas, the income and expenditure of springs under the earth, the birth and death of animals and plants, the destruction of autumn and the reconstruction of spring, the duties and motion of the elements and the stars, and the alternations, struggles and clashes of death and life, light and darkness, and heat and cold, are ordered and weighed with so sensitive a balance, so fine a measure, that the human mind can nowhere see any waste or futility, just as human science and philosophy see everywhere and point out the most perfect order and beautiful symmetry. Indeed, human science and philosophy are a manifestation and interpreter of that order and symmetry.
So, come and consider the balance and equilibrium of the sun and its twelve planets. Does this balance not point as clearly as the sun to the Zuljalâl One Who is ‘Adl and Qadîr? And especially our ship, that is, the globe of the earth, which is one of the planets; it travels an orbit of twenty-four thousand years in one year, not scattering or shaking the things stored up and stacked on its face, despite its extraordinary speed, nor throwing them off into space. If its speed had been increased or reduced just a little, it would have thrown its inhabitants off into the atmosphere and scattered them through space. And if its balance was to be destroyed for a minute, or even a second, it would destroy the world. Indeed, it would clash with another body and qiyâmah would break forth.
And especially the compassionate balance on the face of the earth of the births, deaths, livelihoods, and lives of the four hundred thousand plant and animal species, it shows a single ‘Adl and Rahîm One, as clearly as light shows the sun.
And especially the members, faculties, and senses of a single of the innumerable members of those species, they are related to each other with so fine a balance and equilibrium that their balance and mutual proportion show a Sâni’ Who is ‘Adl and Hakîm so clearly as to be self-evident.
And especially the cells and blood-vessels in the bodies of animals, and the corpuscles in the blood and particles in the corpuscles, they have such a fine, sensitive, and wondrous balance that it self-evidently proves that they are being tarbiyyah and administered through the balance, law, and order of a single Khâliq Who is ‘Adl and Hakîm in Whose hands are the reins of all things, has the key to all things, for Whom nothing is an obstacle to anything else, and directs all things as easily as a single thing.
If someone who does not believe or deems it unlikely that the deeds of jinn and men will be weighed up on the supreme balance of justice at the Resurrection notes carefully this vast balance which he can see in this world with his own eyes, he will surely no longer consider it unlikely.
O wasteful, prodigal.. wrongful, unjust.. dirty, unclean.. wretched man! You have not acted in accordance with the frugality, cleanliness, and justice which is the principle by which the whole universe and all beings act, and are therefore in a ma’nawî manner the object of their anger and disgust. On what do you rely that through your dhulm and imbalance, your wastefulness and uncleanliness, you make all beings angry?
Yes, the universal hikmah of the universe, which is the greatest manifestation of the Name of Al-Hakîm, turns on frugality and lack of waste. It commands frugality. While the total justice in the universe proceeding from the greatest manifestation of the Name of ‘Adl, administers the balance of all things. And it commands justice to man. Mentioning the word 'balance' (mîzân) four times, these âyahs in Surah al-Rahmân,
4 وَالسَّمَاءَ رَفَعَهَا وَوَضَعَ الْمِيزَانَ اَلاَّ تَطْغَوْا فِى الْمِيزَانِ وَاَقِيمُوا الْوَزْنَ بِالْقِسْطِ وَلاَ تُخْسِرُوا الْمِيزَانَ
indicate four degrees and four sorts of balance, showing its immensity and supreme importance in the universe. Yes, just as there is no wastefulness in anything, so too in nothing is there true dhulm and imbalance.
And the cleansing and cleanliness proceeding from the greatest (â’dham) manifestation of the Name of Quddûs that cleans and makes beautiful all the beings in the universe. So long as man's dirty hand does not interfere, there is no true uncleanliness or ugliness in anything.
So, you may understand how basic to human life are the principles of justice, frugality, and cleanliness, which are haqiqahs of the Qur'an and Islamic principles. And know how closely connected with the universe are the injunctions of the Qur'an, having spread their firm roots everywhere, and that it is impossible to destroy those haqiqahs like it is impossible to destroy the universe and change its form.
Is it at all possible that although hundreds of comprehensive haqiqahs like these three vast lights, such as rahmah, ‘inâyah, and hafîdhiyyah, require and necessitate the resurrection and the âkhirah, powerful and all-encompassing haqiqahs like rahmah, ‘inâyah, justice, hikmah, frugality, and cleanliness, which govern in the universe and all beings, should be transformed into unkindness, dhulm, lack of hikmah, wastefulness, uncleanliness, and futility, through there being no âkhirah and the resurrection not occurring?
Hâsha, a hundred thousand times, Hâsha! Would a rahmah and hikmah which compassionately preserve the rights of life of a fly violate the countless rights of life of all conscious beings and the numberless rights of numberless beings, through not bringing the resurrection? And if one may say so, would a splendid rubûbiyyah which displays infinite sensitivity and care in its rahmah and compassion and justice and hikmah, and a sovereignty of Ulûhiyyah which adorns the universe with His endless wondrous arts and ni’mahs in order to display His perfections and make himself known and loved, permit there to be no resurrection, which would reduce to nothing the value of creatures and all their perfections, and make them denied? Hâsha! An absolute beauty (Jamâl) such as that clearly would not permit such absolute ugliness.
Yes, one who wants to deny the âkhirah must first deny all the world and all its haqiqahs. Otherwise, the world together with all its haqiqahs will give him the lie with a hundred thousand tongues, proving the compounded nature of his lie. The Tenth Word proves with certain evidences that the existence of the âkhirah is as definite and indubitable as the existence of this world.” The Flashes ( 400-403 )
“And since the many results, meanings, and fruits of this world, and the fabrics of the deeds, pages of the acts, and the rûhs and bodies, of those like jinn and human beings who are responsible to Allah for acts and îmân are sent to the market of the âkhirah. Certainly, it is a requirement of justice (‘adl) and hikmah that after receiving their particular perfection in accordance with the performance of their duties, the particles of the earth, which accompany and serve those fruits and meanings, will be included in the construction of the âkhirah. That is, they will be included in it together with the debris of this world, which will be destroyed, after many times serving and being the place of manifestation to the nûr of life, and after being the means for the tasbîhât pertaining to life. And from this haqiqah, the tip of a truly mighty 'Law of Justice' (Kânûn al-‘adl) is apparent.” The Words ( 580 )
“There are levels in the love for Janâb-i Haqq's Names. As we explained above, sometimes the Names are loved in a manner of love for finely made objects. Sometimes they are loved as being titles of the Ilahî perfections. Sometimes, man is needy and desirous of the Names by reason of the comprehensiveness of his reality together with his having endless needs. It is through those needs that he loves.
For example, if someone was to come forward and do a kindness -as you want- to all your relations, and the poor, the weak and the needy, for all of whom you feel compassion although you feel the need of help impotently, how that person's title of “granting ni’mahs” and the name of “generous” would please you, how you would love that person through that title.
So too, think only of Janâb-i Haqq's Names of Rahmân and Rahîm. Since these names make happy all the mu’min fathers and forefathers, relations and friends whom you love and feel compassion for, in this world by means of all kinds of ni’mahs, and in Jannah by means of all kinds of delights and they cause happiness by showing them to you in eternal bliss, and Himself to them in eternal bliss too. So how deserving of being loved is the Name of Rahman and the title of Rahîm. And you can see for yourself just how needy for those two Names is the human rûh. And you can understand just how appropriate is the phrase, اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ عَلَى رَحْمَانِيَّتِهِ وَ عَلَى رَحِيمِيَّتِهِ 5
And also a sort of your house and the creatures in it which you are connected to and afflicted by their wretchedness; if you consider carefully, you may understand just how needy and desirous is your rûh for the Name of “Hakîm” and for the title of “Murabbi”, the One Who orders, regulates and does tarbiyyah with perfect hikmah the world and the creatures within it, which are like its familiar equipment and lovable adornments of your home.
And also if you consider carefully, you may understand just how needy is your rûh for the Names of Wârith and Bâ‘ith, and for the titles Bâqî, Karim, Muhyî, and Muhsin of the One Who saves human beings who you are altogether connected to and grieve when they die, at the time of their death from the darkness of non-existence and establishes them in a far finer place than this world.
Thus, since man's reality is exalted and his fitrah comprehensive, he is, by his very fitrah, needy with thousands of different sorts of needs for the innumerable Ilahî Names, each of which has many degrees. The intensified need is longing. The intensified longing is love. And intensified love is ‘ashq. As the rûh is perfected, the degrees of love unfold according to the degrees of the Names. Furthermore, since the Names are the titles and manifestations of the One of Zuljalâl, love of them will be transformed into the love of the Ilahî Essence.
Now, just as an example, we shall explain one of the thousand and one degrees of the Names of ‘Adl, Hakam, Haqq, and Rahîm from a thousand and one Names. For example, if you wish to see the Names of Rahmân Ar-Rahîm, and Haqq within hikmah and justice (‘adl) to the utmost extent, consider the following comparison. Let us suppose there is an army in which there are four hundred different sections. And the uniforms that each section prefers are different, the rizqs that please them, the weapons they will carry with ease and the medicines to cure their particular ills are all different. Furthermore, rather than being separated into squads and companies, they are all intermingled.
If the peerless and single sultân, then, out of perfect compassion and solicitude, wonderful power, miraculous ‘ilm and all-embracing, extraordinary justice and hikmah, without confusing or forgetting any of them were himself, in person, without helper, to give all of them their completely different though appropriate uniforms, rizqs, medicines and weapons, would you not see what a powerful, solicitous, just and generous personage that sultân was. Because, if there were individuals from ten nations in one battalion, it would be extremely difficult to clothe and equip them all differently. Whatever people they were from they would of necessity have to be fitted out in the same way.
Similarly, if you wish to see the manifestation of the Names of Haqq and Rahmân Ar-Rahîm within the justice (‘adl) and hikmah of Janâb-i Haqq, look at the plant and animal armies comprising four hundred thousand magnificent nations with their tents pitched on the face of the earth in springtime. For those groups and sections are all one within the other. And the uniform of each one is different, and the rizqs, weapons, way of life, drill and demobilization are all different. Furthermore, they do not have the power to provide for those needs and the tongues to ask for those wishes. So, watch and see the titles of Haqq, Rahmân, Razzâq, Rahîm and Karîm together with order and balance within the sphere of hikmah and justice (‘adl). See how, without confusing, obscuring or forgetting any of them, He does tarbiyyah, regulates and administers them all.
Could another hand, therefore, interfere in a matter performed with such amazing and all-encompassing order and balance? What, apart from Al-Wâhid Who is Ahad, Absolutely Hakîm, and Qadîr over all things, could even stretch out its hand towards this art, this organizing, this rubûbiyyah, this administering? What cause could interfere?” The Words ( 671-673 )
“Also, since we see before our eyes that the hand of hikmah works on all creatures and on the face of the earth and works are performed with the measures of such justice, the human mind cannot think beyond it. For example, a pre-eternal hikmah that writes man’s entire life-story and the numerous events, which touch on him, in his faculty of memory as tiny as a seed one of the hikmahs that are attached to man’s thousands of faculties, and makes it a library, and gives it to each human’s hand and places it in the pocket of his mind by the mystery of reminding him continuously as a proof for the notebook of his actions which will be published for his judgement at the resurrection. And an eternal justice that places on all creatures with art their members with extremely delicate balance; and makes the skilful creatures -from the microbe to the rhinoceros, and the fly to the simurgh bird, and from a flowering plant to the flower of the spring, which opens thousands of millions of flowers- a beauty of art within a mutual proportion with the wasteless measures and within balance, order and beauty; and gives all living creatures their rights of life with perfect balance, and makes goodness produce good results and badnesses, bad results; and since the time of Âdam it has made itself felt forcefully through the blows it has dealt rebellious and dhâlim tribes. Certainly and without doubt, just as the sun cannot be without the day so that pre-eternal hikmah and eternal justice cannot be without the âkhirah and would never permit the terrible consequenceless inequity, injustice and being without hikmah in the oppressed and dhâlim passing equally. So that the Names of Hakîm and Hakam, ‘Adl and ‘Âdil decisively answer our question.” The Eleventh Ray-The Seventh Matter
“Just as the body relies on the rûh and subsists through it and has life through it, and a word looks to the meaning and is illuminated by it, and form relies on haqiqah and acquires value through it; in exactly the same way this corporeal and material ‘âlam ash-shahâdah is a body, a word, a form which relies on the Ilahî Names behind the veil of al-‘âlam al-ghayb, receiving life and vitality from them; it looks to them, and is beautified. All the instances of physical beauty proceed from the ma’nawî beauties of their own haqiqahs and meanings; and as for their haqiqahs, they receive faydh from the Ilahî Names and are shadows of them of a sort. And this haqiqah is proved decisively in the Risale-i Nur.
This means that all the varieties and sorts of beauty in the universe are the signs, marks, and manifestations -by means of names- of a faultless, incorporeal beauty (jamâl) which is manifested from behind al-‘âlam al-ghayb. However, since Al-Wâjib Al-Wujûd's Most Pure and Holy Essence (Zhât Al-Aqdas) resembles absolutely nothing at all and His attributes are infinitely superior to the attributes of contingent beings, His sacred beauty (jamâl) also does not resemble the beauties of creatures and contingent beings, and is infinitely more exalted. Certainly, an everlasting beauty one manifestation of which is vast Jannah together with all its exquisiteness and beauty, and one hour's witnessing (mushahada) of which makes the inhabitants of Jannah oblivious to Jannah, cannot be finite, nor have any like, equal or peer.
It is clear that the beauties of a thing are in accordance with itself; and there are thousands of sorts of beauties which all differ according to the different sorts of beings. For example, beauty perceived by the eye is not the same as something beautiful heard with the ears, and a beauty pertains to mind comprehended by the mind is not the same as the beauty of food relished by the tongue; so too, the beauties appreciated and perceived as beautiful by the rûh, heart and other external and inner senses are all different like the difference of them. For example, the beauty of îmân, the beauty of haqiqah, the beauty of nûr, the beauty of a flower, the beauty of rûh, and the beauties of form, compassion, justice, kindness, and hikmah. Similarly, since the utter and infinite beauties of Al-Asmâ Al-Husnâ of Al-Jamîl Zuljalâl are all different, the beauties in beings also differ.
If you want to witness one manifestation of the beauties of Al-Jamîl Zuljalâl's Names in the mirrors of beings, take a look with a gazing, wide, imaginative eye at the face of the earth supposing it to be a small garden and know; the terms like rahmâniyyah, rahîmiyyah, hakîmiyyah, and ‘âdiliyyah allude to both the names, and acts, and attributes, and shuûnah of Janâb-i Haqq.
Observe the rizq of foremost man and of all living creatures, which arrives regularly from behind the veil of the ghayb, and see the beauty (jamâl) of Ilahî rahmâniyyah.
Then consider the miraculous sustenance of all young, and the two pumps of milk hanging over their heads on the breasts of their mothers, as sweet and pure as the water of Kawthar, and see the captivating beauty (jamâl) of Rabbânî rahîmiyyah.
Then observe the peerless beauty (jamâl) of Ilahî hakîmiyyah, which makes the whole universe into a mighty book of hikmah every letter of which contains a hundred words, and every word of which contains a hundred lines, and every line of which contains a thousand chapters, and every chapter of which contains hundreds of small books.
Then see the imperious beauty of an ‘âdiliyyah which holds the whole universe and all its beings in balance; and maintains the balance of all the heavenly bodies, lofty and lowly; and supplies symmetry and proportion, the most important elements of beauty; and causes everything to acquire the optimum state; and gives the right to life to living beings, and ensures that their rights are preserved; and halts and punishes aggressors.
Then consider the inscription of man's life story in his memory, as tiny as a grain of wheat, and the programmes of the second lives of all plants and trees in their seeds; and the members and faculties necessary for the defence of living beings, for instance, bees' wings and their poisonous stings, and the small bayonets of thorned plants, and the hard shells of seeds; and see the hâfidhiyyah and subtle beauty (jamâl) of Rabbânî hâfidhiyyah.
Then consider the guests at the table of the earth of Ar-Rahmân Ar-Rahîm, Who is absolutely Karîm, and the pleasant smells of the numberless different foods prepared by rahmah, and their beautiful and various colours, and their delicious and differing tastes, and the organs and members of all living creatures which assist their pleasure and enjoyment; and see the exceedingly pleasant beauty and sweet jamâl of Rabbânî bestowal and karîmiyyah.
Then consider the meaningful forms of foremost man and of all living creatures, which are opened up from droplets of fluid through the manifestation of the Names of Fattâh and Musawwir, and the attractive faces of the flowers of spring opened up from seeds and tiny nuclei; and see the miraculous jamâl of Ilahî fattâhiyyah and musawwiriyyah.
Thus, by analogy with these examples, each of Al-Asmâ Al-Husnâ has a sacred jamâl particular to it a single manifestation of which makes beautiful the vast ‘âlam and innumerable species of beings. You may see the manifestation of a Name's jamâl in a single flower; the spring is also a flower; Jannah is a flower yet unseen. If you can visualize the whole of spring and see Jannah with the eye of îmân, look and see. Understand the utter majesty of everlasting jamâl. If you respond to that Beauty with the beauty of îmân and jamâl of ‘ubûdiyyah, you will be a most beautiful creature.
While if you meet it with the boundless ugliness of dhalâlah and loathsomeness of rebellion, you will be both an ugliest creature and will in a ma’nawî manner be loathed by all beautiful creatures.” The Rays ( 85-88 )
اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ عَلَى نِعْمَةِ اْلاِيمَانِ ٭ رَبَّنَا لاَ تُؤَاخِذْنَا اِنْ نَسِينَا اَوْ اَخْطَاْنَا
سُبْحَانَكَ لاَ عِلْمَ لَنَا اِلاَّ مَا عَلَّمْتَنَا اِنَّكَ اَنْتَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ
1 Imam Abu Hanifa (Nu’man bin Thâbit)(Ra)
2 Abdulqâdir Jilânî (Ra)
3 (And there is not a thing but its [sources and] treasures [inexhaustible] are with Us; but We only send down thereof in due and ascertainable measures.)
4 (He has raised the samâ on high and created the balance, * In order that you may not transgress [due] balance. * So establish weight with justice and fall not short in the balance)