TAFRÎT – تفريط
Literally: A doing less than one's duty. Remissness. Imperfect performance. A granting delay or respite. Deficiency in action.
As an Islamic term: Deviating from istiqâmah and falling into deficiency.
“Since Ar-Rasûl Al-Akram ‘Alayhissalâtu Wassalâm was created with a most moderate character and in the most perfect form, his actions and rest all proceeded on equanimity and istiqâmah. His biography (siyar) shows clearly that in all his actions he proceeded with equanimity and istiqâmah, avoiding ifrât and tafrît.
Yes, Ar-Rasûl Al-Akram ‘Alayhissalâtu Wassalâm conformed completely to the command: فَاسْتَقِمْ كَمَٓا اُمِرْتَ 1 and, therefore, istiqâmah is definitely apparent in all his acts, words, and conduct. For example, free of gabâwah and jarbaza, which are the ifrât and tafrît like the corruption and dhulm of al-quwwa al-aqliyyah, his quwwa al-aqliyyah always worked from the point of hikmah, which is the boundary of wasat and means of istiqâmah. So too, far from tahawwur and cowardice, which are the corruption of al-quwwa al-ghadhabiyyah and its ifrât and tafrît, his quwwa al-ghadhabiyyah always acted with sacred shajâ'ah, which are means of istiqâmah and boundary of wasat. And so too, purified of khumud and fujûr, which are the ifrât and tafrît of al-quwwa ash-shahawiyyah and its corruption, his quwwa ash-shahawiyyah always took ‘iffah, the means of istiqâmah of that power, as a guide, at the degree of maximum virtuousness. And so on... In all his Sunnah as-Saniyyah, his fıtrî conduct, and injunctions of his Sharî’ah, he chose the boundary of istiqâmah and avoided ifrât and tafrît, and wastefulness and prodigality, which are dhulm and darkness. He avoided wastefulness absolutely and took frugality as his guide in his speech even, and in eating and drinking. Thousands of books have been written describing the details of this haqiqah. In accordance with the mystery of اَلْعَارِفُ تَكْفِيهِ اْلاِشَارَةُ 2 we make do with this drop from the ocean and cut the story short here.” The 11th Flash-11th Subtle Point
“Since the time of Âdam (as), two mighty currents in mankind have come by conflicting with each other. One is that of the people of nubuwwah, righteousness and îmân, who through following istiqâmah, receive the ni’mahs and happiness in both worlds. Since they act in istiqâmah in accordance with the true beauty, order and perfection of the universe, they both receive the favours of the universe's Owner and happiness in this world and the âkhirah, and being the means of mankind rising to the level of the Malâikah, or higher, through the haqiqahs of îmân, they attain a ma’nawî Jannah in this world, and bliss in the âkhirah and they cause others to win these too.
The second current, due to transforming the mind into an instrument which collects pains and means of tortures by abandoning istiqâmah, through ifrât and tafrît, it casts humanity down to a degree lower than the animals. And in return for their dhulm in this world, together with receiving the slaps of Ilahî wrath and calamity, their rûhs and consciences are in a ma’nawî Jahannam in this world due to seeing the universe as a place of universal mourning and as the slaughterhouse of living creatures rolling over in perishment, and extremely ugly and confused, with the connection of mind, in terms of their dhalâlah, and they make themselves deserving of everlasting torment in the âkhirah.
Thus, the âyah, اَلَّذِينَ اَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ الضَّالِّينَ at the end of Surah al-Fâtiha instructs us of these two mighty currents. And this âyah is the source, basis, and ustadh of all the comparisons in the Risale-i Nur. Since the Nûrs do tafsir this âyah with hundreds of comparisons, referring the further explanation to them, we suffice with this brief indication.” The Fifteenth Ray/The First Station/A Brief Summary of the Noble Fâtiha/The 8th Phrase
“This elucidates and spells out [what] fisq [consists of], for fisq is a renunciation of Haqq and to exceed the limits and quit the hard shell. Fisq is either ifrât or tafrît in the three quwwas of al-aqliyyah, al-ghadhabiyyah and ash-shahawiyyah3 . And ifrât and tafrît lead to rebellion in the face of the evidences that are like the Ilahî covenants (al-'uhûd) in fitrah. They also lead to sickness in personal life; the first attribute [in the above âyah] indicates this. So too they incite rebellion in the face of social life and break the bonds and laws of society. The second attribute indicates this. They also cause corruption and revolution, which spoil the order of the earth, as indicated by the third attribute. Yes, when fâsiq’s quwwa al-aqliyyah exceeds the bounds of moderation the depraved person breaks the bonds of the aqâid and smashes their strong shell, that is, eternal life. And when his quwwa al-ghadhabiyyah oversteps the mark he smashes the shell of social life. And when his quwwa ash-shahawiyyah exceeds the limits and he follows his desires, compassion for his fellow humans vanishes from his heart and he corrupts the people and makes difficulties for them in whatever he becomes involved in, and causes harm to the human race and spoils the order of the earth.” Signs of Miraculousness ( 232 )
“KNOW, O FRIEND, that modesty sometimes contradicts one’s proclaiming ni’mahs, for doing so sometimes gives rise to pride and arrogance. Thus, avoid tafrît and ifrât. The istiqâmah in one’s proclaiming ni’mahs is as follows: Every ni’mahs has two aspects. The first pertains to the one on whom Allah has bestowed it. This ni’mah distinguishes one in a community and leads to pride and forgetting the One Who gave it. Such people arrogate it to themselves, attributing it to their abilities or merits, and become haughty.
The second pertains to Al-Mun’im. The blessing displays His Munificence and rahmah and testifies to His Names. By the act of bestowing ni’mahs, He pronounces the âyahs of the manifestation of His Names. Modesty should be shown in the first case, while it becomes kufr an-ni’mah if shown in the second one. If one attributes to Allah and His Munificence all the ni’mahs that have been bestowed to him and feels no self-pride, his proclaiming the ni’mahs bestowed on him will be a ma’nawî shukr.
O Yûsuf Kishri. When you wear splendid clothes, Said says to you: “How beautiful you are.” You say: “Beauty belongs to the clothes, not to me.” This is both modesty and a proclamation of ni’mahs.” Al-Mathnawi al-Nuri (321)