LESSONS / Compilations

بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ وَ الصَّلاَةُ وَ السَّلاَمُ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ وَ عَلَى آلِهِ وَ صَحْبِهِ اَجْمَعِينَ

AL-WÂJIB AL-WUJÛD - The Necessarily Existent One

الواجب الوجود

“Thus, وَ لِلّٰهِ الْمَثَلُ اْلاَعْلٰى , As-Sâni’ Zuljalâl of the universe is Wâjib Al-Wujûd. That is His existence is essential1 , pre-eternal2 , post-eternal3 , its non-existence is impossible4 , its cessation is impossible5 ; it is the most firmly rooted, the most sound, the strongest, and the most perfect of all the levels of existence6 .7 ...

As-Sâni’ of the universe is not of the same kind as the universe. His Essence resembles no other essences at all...

…the sacred Essence of Al-Wâjib Al-Wujûd is not of the same kind as contingent beings' essences…” The Twentieth Letter-Second Station-The Tenth Phrase/The Fourth

 

 “The First Haqiqah: These are the haqiqahs of hudûs8 and imkân9 seen and proved with countless evidences by the genius ‘Ulamâ of Usul ad-dîn and ‘ilm al-Kalâm and philosophers of Islam. They have said that:

“Since there is change and transformation in the ‘âlam and all things, most certainly the ‘âlam is transient, it newly comes into existence and is formed, it cannot be eternal and uncreated. Since it newly comes into existence and is formed,  most certainly there is a Sâni’ who creates it. And since, in the essence of everything, if there is no cause, their existence and non-existence are equal, they most certainly cannot be wâjib and pre-eternal (azalî). And since it has been proven with decisive evidences that it is not possible to create each other through the continuous causal chain which is impossible and bâtil, it is a necessity the existence of a Wâjib Al-Wujûd that whose like cannot exist, whose similitude is impossible and which everything other than He is contingent and all other than He are His creatures.

Yes, the haqiqah of hudûs has subjugated the universe. Many of it is seen by the eye; the rest are seen by the mind. For in front of our eyes such an ‘âlam dies every autumn together with hundreds of thousands of species of plants and tiny animals which each of having infinite members and each of are a living universe. It is, however, so orderly a death that in the spring they leave behind in their places seeds, cores and eggs which are the source of their resurrection and sprouting and the miracles of rahmah and hikmah, wondrous of qoudrah and ‘ilm, they hand their book of deeds and program of their duties to them under the protection of Al-Hafîdh Zuljalâl and entrust them to His hikmah and then they die. And, as being the hundreds of thousands of examples, samples and proofs of the great gathering of the resurrection, in the season of spring, dead trees, roots and some of the animals are given life and revived exactly as they were. And, some of them too, in place of themselves, similars and exact resemblers of those are brought into being and given life. And, the beings of the preceding spring demonstrate an example of the âyah وَاِذَا الصُّحُفُ نُشِرَتْۙ by publishing the pages of their deeds and duties like a proclamation.

Also, with respect to the state of the whole, each autumn and each spring a great ‘âlam dies and a fresh ‘âlam comes into being. That death and constant change and renewal in beings (hudûs) occur so orderly, and in that death and constant change and renewal in beings (hudûs), such species die and newly come into existence by extreme order and balance that it is as if the world were a guesthouse where living universes become guests in, where travelling ‘âlams and wandering worlds come to, fulfil their duties and leave. Thus, the necessary existence, infinite qoudrah and boundless hikmah of a Zuljalâl Being Who newly brings into existence and creates in this world such living worlds and employed universes, with perfect ‘ilm, hikmah, equilibrium, balance, order and regularity, and Who employs them with rahmah for Rabbânî purposes, Ilahî aims and Rahmânî services, with full qoudrah, appear to the minds clearly like the sun. We close the discussion by referring the matter of hudûs to the Risale-i Nur and the books of the Muhaqqiqîn.

As for imkân, it too subjugates and embraces the universe. For we see that all beings, universal or particular, big or small, from ‘Arsh down to the earth, from the particles to the planets are sent to the world with a particular essence, a specific form, a distinct identity, particular attributes, qualities with hikmah and beneficial members. Whereas, to give that particular individual and essence its peculiarities, from amongst the infinite possibilities... to clothe it with that embroidered, distinguished, appropriate and defined form from amongst the possibilities and probabilities to the number of the forms... to specially designate by distinction to that being, which is violently shaken amidst the possibilities to the number of the members of its species, worthy personalities to place special, appropriate and beneficial attributes to that being with art which is formless and hesitant amidst the possibilities and probabilities to the number of the varieties of attributes and degrees... to affix and equip qualities with hikmah and members with ‘inayah to that aimless creature, perplexed and bewildered amidst the innumerable possibilities and probabilities in point of being in the infinitude of paths and modalities... surely, are indications, proofs and evidences -to the number of all the contingent beings, universals or particulars, and to the number of each contingent being’s essence, identity, whole, form attribute and situation, that are discussed- to the necessary existence, infinite qoudrah and infinite hikmah of a Wâjib Al-Wujûd Who designates, chooses, specifies and newly creates. They are also indications, proofs and evidences that nothing and no matter is hidden from Him, that nothing is difficult for Him, that the greatest thing is as easy for Him as the smallest, that He can create a spring as easily as a tree, and a tree as easily as a seed. All of these indications, proofs and evidences emerge from the haqiqah of imkân and form one wing of this great testimony of the universe.” The Seventh Ray/The Eighteenth Degree

 

“There appears visible to our eye the comprehensive, permanent, orderly and awesome haqiqah of a pervading incessant activity spread across the whole universe which changes, transforms, and renews all beings in samâwât and on earth. Within the haqiqah of that complete activity with hikmah, what is clearly perceived is the haqiqah of the manifestation of Rubûbiyyah, and in turn, within the haqiqah of that manifestation of Rubûbiyyah which spreads out rahmah in every aspect of it, what is inevitably recognisable is the appearance of the haqiqah of Ulûhiyyah.

From behind the veil of this continuous activity with hikmah and domination, the deeds of a Fâ‘il Who is Qadîr and ‘Alîm can be perceived as though seen.

And from behind the veil of these tarbiyyah and administering deeds of Ar-Rabb, the Ilahî  Names, manifest in all things, can be immediately perceived.

Then behind the veil of Al-Asmâ Al-Husnâ manifesting itself with Glory and Beauty (Jalâl and Jamâl), can be deduced to the existence and reality of the ‘seven sacred attributes’, at the degree of ‘ilm al-yaqîn, rather ‘ayn al-yaqîn, even haqq al-yaqîn10 .

And even these seven Sacred attributes, according to the testimony of all creation, and all their endless manifestations in a life-giving, powerful, knowledgeable, all-hearing, all-seeing, volitional and speech-endowed form, there appears to the eye of îmân in the heart, self-evidently, necessarily and with ‘ilm al-yaqîn the existence of Al-Wâjib Al-Wujûd that is described by these attributes, a Wâhid Who is Ahad known by these Names, a Fâ’il Who is Fard and Samad behind these activities, in a way more evidential and brilliant than the sun.

For a beautiful and profound book and a well-built house clearly requires the act of writing and building; and the acts of writing beautifully and building well clearly require the titles of writer and builder; and the names of writer and builder clearly imply the arts and attributes of writing and building; and these arts and attributes self-evidently necessitate a being who will be the owner of these titles and attributes, and be the artist and craftsman. For just as it is not possible for there to be a deed without a doer, and a name without a possessor, so too it is impossible for there to be an attribute without an owner, and a craft without a craftsman.

Thus on the basis of this haqiqah and principle, the universe with all the beings it contains resembles a collection of profound books and letters written by the pen of Qadar, and countless buildings and palaces constructed with the hammer of Qoudrah. Each of these singly in thousands of ways and together in uncountable ways utters the following testimony: These innumerable deeds of Rabb and Rahmân, and the endless manifestations of the thousand and one Ilahî Names which are the source of the deeds, and the infinite manifestations of the seven attributes of Subhân which are the source of the Beautiful Names, in endless and infinite ways point to and testify to the necessary existence and Wahdah of a Zuljalâl One Who is pre-eternal and post-eternal, and is the source of those all-embracing, sacred seven attributes and is qualified by them.

And so too all the instances of beauty, loveliness, perfection, and exquisiteness found in those beings self-evidently testify all together to the sacred beauties and perfections of the deeds of Rabb, and the Ilahî Names, and attributes of Samad, and shuûnah of Subhân, which are fitting and worthy of them, and to the sacred jamâl and kamal of the Most Pure and Holy Essence (Zhât Al-Aqdas).

So the haqiqah of Rubûbiyyah that manifests itself within the haqiqah of activity reveals and makes itself known in shuûnah and acts such as creating, originating, fashioning and bringing into being, with ‘Ilm and hikmah; determining, forming, administering and changing with regularity and balance; transforming, causing to descend and perfecting, with purpose and Irâdah; and feeding, nurturing, and bestowing generosity and bounty, with tenderness and rahmah.

And within the haqiqah of the manifestation of Rubûbiyyah, the haqiqah of the immediately perceived revelation of Ulûhiyyah makes itself known and recognized through the compassionate and munificent manifestations of Al-Asmâ Al-Husnâ and through the Jalâl and jamâl manifestations of the seven affirmative attributes: Hayât (Life), ‘Ilm (Knowledge), Qoudrah (Power), Irâdah (Will), Sam’ (Hearing), Basar (Sight), and Kalâm (Speech).

Just as the attribute of Kalâm makes His Most Sacred Essence known through wahy and ilham, so too the attribute of Qoudrah makes the Most Sacred Essence (Zhât Al-Aqdas) known through its skilled works and effects, each of which is like a word assuming external shape. Presenting the universe from end to end under the aspect of a material Furqân, it describes and makes known Al-Qadîr Zuljalâl.

As for the attribute of ‘Ilm, it makes known to the number of creatures, the attributes of a single Most Sacred Essence (Zhât Al-Aqdas), through each of the hikmah, well-ordered and balanced objects of creation, through each creature administered, directed, adorned, and made distinct by Allah's ‘Ilm.

As for the attribute of Hayât, it is proven not only by its own evidences, but also by all the works that proclaim Qoudrah, by all the well-ordered, wise, balanced and adorned forms and states that indicate ‘Ilm, as well as by all proofs of all other attributes. Thus Hayât, showing as witnesses all animate beings, which act as mirrors reflecting those abundant proofs, makes known Al-Hayy Who is Qayyûm.

It is also this attribute that constantly changes the universe, in order to produce in it ever-fresh and various manifestations and embroideries, and turns it into a supreme mirror composed of countless smaller mirrors. Similarly, the attributes of Seeing and Hearing, Willing and Speaking, each reveal and make known as great as the universe the Most Sacred Essence (Zhât Al-Aqdas).

Then, too, just as the attributes point to the existence of the Zuljalâl One, they also indicate most manifestly the existence and reality of life and the livingness and permanence of that Essence. For Knowing is a sign of Life; Hearing is an indication of Life; Seeing belongs only to the living; Will takes place only with Life. Purposive Power is found only in living beings, and Speech is a task for those endowed with Knowledge and Life.

It follows from the foregoing that the attribute of Hayât has proofs seven times as numerous as the universe, and has evidences that proclaim its own existence and the existence of the One possessing it, whereby it has come to be the foundation and source of the attributes, the origin and support of Al-ism al-â’dham. Since the Risale-i Nur establishes this first haqiqah with powerful proofs and clarifies it, we will content ourselves now with the above reference as a drop from this ocean.

THE SECOND HAQIQAH: This is Ilahî discourse, which proceeds from the attribute of Kalâm. According to the mystery of the âyah: لَوْ كَانَ الْبَحْرُ مِدَادًا لِكَلِمَاتِ رَبِّى 11 Ilahî Kalâm is infinite. The clearest sign demonstrating the existence of a being is his speech. This haqiqah, therefore, constitutes an infinite testimony to the existence and wahdah of the Pre-Eternal Mutakallim.” The Rays (167-170)

 

“For it is established through the rule of ‘ilm al-Usûl and Hikmah مَالَمْ يَجِبْ لَمْ يُوجَد that "If a thing is not wâjib, it may not come into existence”. That is, there has to be an ‘illah at-tâmmah; then it may come into existence. The ‘illah at-tâmmah necessarily requires generated by a cause in which a reason exists.” The Twenty-Sixth Word-2nd Topic

‘Illah at-tâmmah is the Irâdah of Allah (‘Azza wa jalla);

“A being may not come into existence unless its existence is wâjib; when Irâdah al-kulliyyah12 and irâdah al-juziyyah13 connect with that thing; its existence becomes wâjib, it then has existence instantaneously.” Signs of Miraculousness-Âyah-7-Eleventh

 

“Even men like Plato and Aristo, Ibn-i Sina and Farabi, who were the brilliant members of the chain of philosophy and the geniuses of that chain said that the ultimate aim of humanity is to liken themselves to Al-Wâjib (التشبّه بالواجب), that is, to resemble Al-Wâjib Al-Wujûd. They thus delivered judgement in the manner of Pharaoh, and, by whipping up ananiyyah and allowing to run free in the valleys of shirk, opened the way to numerous different ways of shirk, like ‘ibâdah of causes, ‘ibâdah of idols, ‘ibâdah of nature and ‘ibâdah of the stars. They closed the doors of impotence and weakness, poverty and need, deficiency and imperfection, which are contained in the essence of human beings, thus obstructing the road of ‘ubûdiyyah. Being immersed in Naturalism and being completely incapable of emerging from shirk, they were unable to find the broad gate of shukr….

…According to the rule of:  تَخَلَّقُوا بِاَخْلاَقِ اللّٰ14 which is one of the principles of the nubuwwah concerning individual life, there is the instruction: “Be distinguished by the ethics that Allah ordered and turn towards Janâb-i Haqq with humility recognizing your impotence, poverty, and defectiveness, and so be an ‘abd in His presence.” Whereas, the self-seeking rule of philosophy which is “try to resemble Al-Wâjib Al-Wujûd” through the principle التشبّه بالواجب15 is mankind's aim for perfection. No, indeed, the essence of humanity has been kneaded with infinite impotence, weakness, poverty, and need, while the essence of Al-Wâjib Al-Wujûd is infinitely qadîr, powerful (qawî), self-sufficient (ghanî), and without the need (mustaghni).” The 30th Word

 

وَهُوَ حَىٌّ لاَ يَمُوتُ

That is, His life is eternal, it is pre-eternal and post-eternal. Death and dissolution, non-existence and fading cannot befall Him. Because life is of His essence. The essence cannot be transient. Yes, One Who is pre-eternal is certainly post-eternal. One Who is permanent and uncreated is certainly eternal. One Who is Wâjib Al-Wujûd is certainly eternal. Yes, such a life which all existence with all its nûrs, is its shadow, how can non-existence affect it? Yes, such a life which a wâjib existence is its necessity and superscription, surely non-existence and dissolution cannot affect it in any aspect. Yes, such a life which all lives continuously come into existence through the manifestation of it, and all enduring haqiqahs of the universe rely on, exist permanently with it; indeed dissolution and fading cannot affect it in any aspect. Yes, such a life which one flash of the manifestation gives a wahdah to a multiplicity of things which are subject to dissolution and fade, and makes them the place of manifestation for eternity, and saves them from dissolution, preserves their existence and makes them the place of manifestation for a sort of permanency. That is, life gives a wahdah to multiplicity; it makes it permanent. If life departs, it disperses, it goes into extinction. Certainly, dissolution and fading cannot approach Al-Wâjib Al-Wujûd’s life, which all infinite flashes of life are a manifestation of.

Decisive witnesses of this haqiqah are the fading and dissolution of the universe. That is, through their existence and lives, {When Hazrat ‘Ibrâhîm ‘Alayhissalâm referred to the subject of the rising and setting of the sun in his debate with Nimrod in life and death, it was a transition and progress from a particular meaning of the giving of life and death to a universal meaning. It demonstrates the most illuminating and widest sphere of the proof, and does not, as some mufassîrîn have asserted, abandon the hidden proof for the obvious one.} beings bear witness to and signify to the Life of that Undying Hayy and to the necessary existence of that life, and in the same way, through their deaths and their dissolution they bear witness to and signify to the perpetuity and eternity of that life.” The Twentieth Letter/Second Station/The Eighth Phrase

 

“The creation of Jannah is as easy as that of the spring and the creation of spring is as easy as that of a flower in relation to the Qoudrah of Al-Qadîr One, who administers the universe with visible acts. The beauty of a flower’s art and the subtleties in its creation may be as subtle and valuable as the spring. The mystery of this haqiqah is threefold:

First: The necessarily existent (wujûb) and immateriality of As-Sâni’.

Second: The opposition and difference of His essence and His being unrestricted.

Third: His not being bound by space and His indivisibility…

…Thus, وَ لِلّٰهِ الْمَثَلُ اْلاَعْلٰى , As-Sâni’ Zuljalâl of the universe is Wâjib Al-Wujûd. That is His existence is essential16 , pre-eternal17 , post-eternal18 , its non-existence is impossible19 , its cessation is impossible20 ; it is the most firmly rooted, the most sound, the strongest, and the most perfect of all the levels of existence21 .22 In comparison with His existence, the other levels of existence are like extremely weak shadows. The existence of Allah is firm and true to such an extent, and the existence of contingent beings is so light and weak to such an extent that many of ahl al-tahqîq, such as Muhyi al-Din al-‘Arabi, have degraded the other levels of existence to the level of wahm and imagination; they said: لاَ مَوْجُودَ اِلاَّ هُوَ 23 That is, in relation to the existence of Allah, other things should not be named as existent. They asserted that they are not worthy of the title existent.

Thus, for Al-Wâjib Al-Wujûd’s Qoudrah, which is both wâjib and his essence, creatures’ existences, which are newly created, not essential and exist subsequently, and contingent beings’ both unstable and powerless stability are infinitely easy and simple. To raise all rûhs from death and judge them at the great gathering of judgment is as easy as resurrecting leaves, flowers and fruits in the spring, rather in a garden, or on a tree.” The Twentieth Letter/Second Station/The Tenth Phrase/The Fourth

 

“Wahdah ash-shuhûd, which is an extremely important way of the tarîqah titled wahdah al-wujûd, through restricting the look to the existence of Al-Wâjib Al-Wujûd sees other beings to be very weak and shadow-like in relation to the existence of Wâjib. It goes as far as asserting that their unworthiness of the name of existent, envelops them to veils of imagination, counts them as nothing in the station of 'abandoning all things other than Allah,' and even forms the idea of their being non-existent, it only gives the state of being as imaginary mirrors to the manifestations of the Ilahî Names.

Thus, a significant haqiqah about this way is that the existence of Al-Wâjib Al-Wujûd, through the strength of îmân and unfolding of an elevated walâyah to the degree of haqq al-yaqîn, the existence of contingent beings decrease to such a degree that, in its view, other than imagination and non-existence no degree of them remains; it is as though it denies the universe on account of Al-Wâjib Al-Wujûd.” The Twenty-Ninth Letter/The 9th Section/5th Allusion

 

“The human mind does not have the breadth and scope to measure Taâ’lâ’s grandeur, weigh up perfections, or to judge His attributes. This is not possible except in one respect they may be gauged only from the sum total of His artefacts, and from what is manifested of all His works, and from what may be epitomized from all His acts. Yes, an atom can only be a mirror, not the measure.

If you have understood these matters, know that Al-Wâjib Taâ’lâ cannot be compared with contingent beings, for they are as different from one another as are the ground and the Pleiades. Surely you can see that it was because of this false comparison, that with the Naturalists, the Mu'tazilites, and Zoroastrians their quwwa al-wâhimah overpowered their reasons, and they ascribed an actual effect to causes, and the creation of acts to living creatures, and the creation of sharr to one other than Taâ’lâ. With their wahm, they asked how with His grandeur, sublimity, and freedom from defect (tanazzuh) Allah Taâ’lâ would condescend to [create] these base matters and ugly things. How could they shackle the mind with such a wahm? But alas! As a wahm, it afflicts mu’mins also. So be careful to avoid it!” Signs of Miraculousness ( 84 )

 

“Thus, Sahâbah, asfîyâ of mujtahidîn and Imams of Ahl al-Bayt said: حَقَائِقُ اْلاَشْيَاءِ ثَابِتَةٌ 24 Janâb-i Haqq has a manifestation in a true form with all His Names. Through being created by Him, all things have an existence which is not essential and exist subsequently. Although their existence is an extremely weak and unstable shadow in relation to Al-Wâjib Al-Wujûd's existence, it is not an imagination, it is not wahm. Janâb-i Haqq gives existence through His Name Khallâq and He continues their existence.” The Eighteenth Letter-Second Important Matter

 

“Since Janâb-i Haqq exists, everything exists. Since there is relation (intisâb) with Janâb Al-Wâjib Al-Wujûd, all things exist for everything. Through the relation with Al-Wâjib Al-Wujûd, each being procures a connection with all beings through the mystery of wahdah. That means, through the mystery of wahdah, each being that knows its relation with Al-Wâjib Al-Wujûd, or whose relation is known, becomes related with all beings that are related to Him. This means, in the point of that relation, each thing may be a place of manifestation for the infinite nûrs of existence. There is no separation or death at that point. To live for a passing moment is the means to infinite nûrs of existence.

If that relation does not exist or is not known, each thing becomes a place of manifestation to infinite separations, deaths and non-existence. For in that case, in the face of each being with which it could have been connected, it has a separation, a parting and a death. That means it burdens its own individual existence with infinite instances of non-existence and separation. Even if it remains in existence for a million years [without relation (intisâb)], it would not be living as much as a moment, being related in the former point. Ahl al-haqiqah have said, therefore: "Illumined existence for a passing moment is preferable to an unprofitable million years of existence." That is to say: “One moment of existence with the relation to the existence of Wâjib is preferable to a million years of existence without relation to the existence of Wâjib.” And it is also because of this mystery that ahl al-tahqîq have said: "The nûrs of existence are through recognition of Al-Wâjib Al-Wujûd." That is to say: "In that case, the universe is seen to be full of malâikah, rûh beings, and intelligent beings amidst nûrs of existence. If that relation did not exist, the darkness of non-existence and pain of death and separation would encompass each being. In that man’s view, the world would appear to be an empty and desolate frightful place."

Indeed, each fruit of a tree has a relation with all the fruits on a tree, and since through that relation, each is its friend and brother, it possesses existences to their number, which are newly created, not essential existence but subsequent. But when the fruit is plucked from the tree, separation and death result in the face of each fruit. For it, each fruit becomes as though non-existent. For it, an external darkness of non-existence results.

In the same way, in the point of being related to the Qoudrah of Al-Ahad Who is Samad, all things exist for everything. There are external non-existences for all things to the number of things if that relation does not exist.

And so, from this sign look to the greatness of the nûrs of îmân and see the terrifying darkness of dhalâlah. That means, îmân is the title of the essence and reality of elevated haqiqah which is described in this sign; and may be benefited from through îmân. In the absence of îmân, just as everything is non-existent for someone who is blind, deaf, mute and mindless, so is everything non-existent and dark for one who does not have îmân.”  The Twenty-Fourth Letter/1st Station/5th Allusion

 

 

سُبْحَانَكَ لاَ عِلْمَ لَنَا اِلاَّ مَا عَلَّمْتَنَا اِنَّكَ اَنْتَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ

1 (ذاتي -dhâtî)

2 (ازلي -azalî)

3 (ابدي -abadî)

4 (عدمه ممتنع -adamuhu mumtani’)

5 (زواله محال -zawâluhu muhâl)

6 (ارساها واقواها واكملها، بينما سائر طبقات الوجود -arsâhâ, aqwâhâ, akmalahâ baynamâ sâir tabaqât al-wujûd)

7 (These six attributes are the attributes of Al-Wâjib Al-Wujûd)

8 (A newly coming into existence, a being new or recent, recentness. The essential recentness of origin, the reverse of existence from eternity. The constant change and renewal in beings.)

9 Imkân is defined as: Contingent beings. The entire creation. The existence of them and non-existence of them have the same possibility. Whatever exists other than Al-Wâjib Al-Wujûd. Allah, Who is Al-Wâjib Al-Wujûd chooses the existence of them, through His will and Irâdah and gives them a particular essence, a specific form, a distinct identity, particular attributes, qualities with hikmah, and beneficial organs from amongst the infinite possibilities.

“Contingent beings (imkân) are equal in respect of being and non-being, there must be [a Necessary Being] who has chosen this.” Signs of Miraculousness (163)

“in the terminology of ‘Ilm al-Kalâm, contingency (imkân) is the equality on the two sides (Al-imkân musawî ad-darafayn). That is, if there is not a cause, things which are not necessary (wâjib) and unattainable but contingent and the attainment of which are possible are equal in regard to existence and non-existence, there is no difference. Few or many, big or small are the same in regard to this contingency (imkân) and equality.

Thus, creatures are contingent, and since within the sphere of contingency (imkân) their existence and non-existence are equal, it is as easy for the boundless pre-eternal qoudrah of Al-Wâjib Al-Wujûd to give existence to a single contingent being as it is to give all contingent beings existence, He clothes everything in an appropriate existence, spoils the balance of non-existence. And when the being's duties are completed, He takes off its garment of external existence and sends it apparently to non-existence, but in fact, sends it to a ma’nawî existence within the sphere of ‘Ilm.” The Rays ( 625 )

Wujûb is defined as: The totality of the Ilahî essence, Shuûnah, Attributes and Names.

10 1-‘Ilm al-yaqîn: Acquiring certain knowledge with the way of ‘Ilm. That is, knowing the existence of something with its proofs.

2-‘Ayn al-yaqîn: Acquiring certain knowledge by seeing. That is, the way to know something by seeing with the eye.

3-Haqq al-yaqîn: Acquiring certain knowledge with the haqiqah of knowledge. That is the way of knowing something by getting inside of it. We explain these three words by the lesson we took from our beloved Ustadh Hazrat Bediuzzaman. For example: If we see some smoke from a far distance, we will know that there is a fire. This is called ‘Ilm al-yaqîn. If we get closer to that smoke, we will see the fire with our eyes. This is called ‘Ayn al-yaqîn. Then if we get inside the nûr of the fire, we will understand the heat of it. This is called Haqq al-yaqîn” Miftah-ül Îmân-93

11 (Were the sea to become ink for the words of my Rabb)

12 (universal Irâdah of Allah ‘Azza wa jalla)

13 (particular irâdah of man, juz al-ikhtiyârî)

14 (Be moulded by the ethics that Allah ordered)

15 (Try to resemble Al-Wâjib)

16 (ذاتي -dhâtî)

17 (ازلي -azalî)

18 (ابدي -abadî)

19 (عدمه ممتنع -adamuhu mumtani’)

20 (زواله محال -zawâluhu muhâl)

21 (ارساها واقواها واكملها، بينما سائر طبقات الوجود -arsâhâ, aqwâhâ, akmalahâ baynamâ sâir tabaqât al-wujûd)

22 (These six attributes are the attributes of Al-Wâjib Al-Wujûd)

23 (There is no existent save Him)

24 (The haqiqahs of things are constant)

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