بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ وَ الصَّلاَةُ وَ السَّلاَمُ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ وَ عَلَى آلِهِ وَ صَحْبِهِ اَجْمَعِينَ
‘IBÂDAH - 2
يَا اَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِى خَلَقَكُمْ وَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ ٭ اَلَّذِى جَعَلَ لَكُم اْلاَرْضَ فِرَاشًا وَالسَّمَاءَ بِنَاءً وَاَنْزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَاَخْرَجَ بِهِ مِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ رِزْقًا لَكُمْ فَلاَ تَجْعَلُوا لِلّٰهِ اَنْدَادًا وَ اَنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ1
You should know that it is ‘ibâdah that instils the aqâid [in the mu’mins] making them a very part of their character. For if matters of the conscience and reason are not nurtured and strengthened by ‘ibâdah, which consists of carrying out Allah's commands and abstaining from His prohibitions, they remain ineffectual and weak. The present state of the Islamic world testifies to this.
Know too that ‘ibâdah is the cause of happiness in this world and the next, and is a means of ordering life here and there, and a cause of attainment and perfection, both individual and collective. It is an exalted, esteemed relation between Khâliq and ‘abd.
There are several reasons ‘ibâdah is the cause of happiness and prosperity in this world, which is the tillage of the âkhirah:
Firstly: Man has been created with a strange, subtle disposition distinguishing him from all other living beings and making him an exception to them. As a result of this disposition, the inclination to choose, and the inclination for the most beautiful things and for fine decoration, and a fıtrî inclination to have a livelihood and position befitting humanity have arisen in him.
For his food, dress, and accommodation - the need for which arises due to the above-mentioned desires - to be prepared proficiently man has need of multiple arts and crafts, but he is incapable of practising all of these on his own. He needs, therefore, to mix with his fellow-men and to co-operate with them, and for all of them to assist each other and exchange the fruits of their labour.
However, since so as to allow men's progress by means of the juz’ al-ikhtiyârî, As-Sâni’ Al-Hakîm placed no innate limits on the [three] human powers of quwwa ash-shahawiyyah, quwwa al-ghadhabiyah, quwwa al-aqliyyah (appetite, anger and mind) - as with the animals and their limited powers - dhulm and aggression have arisen. And since no limit has been placed on them, the powers [tend to] aggression and the [human] community is in need of justice when exchanging the fruits of its labour.2 But because the minds of single members of society are incapable of comprehending justice, the human race as a whole needs a general or universal mind [to establish] justice from which all may benefit. And that mind is the universal law, and that law is the Sharî’ah. Then in order to preserve the effectiveness of the Sharî’ah and its enforcement, a lawmaker is necessary, someone to lay claim to it and promulgate it, an authority, and that is the Nabi (Prophet) ‘Alayhissalâm.
Then in order to perpetuate his outward and inward domination over [people's] minds and hearts the Nabi needs to be eminently superior both physically and ma’nawî and morally, and in conduct and appearance, and by nature and in character. He is in need too of proof of the strength of his relations with Mâlik al-Mulk, the owner of al-‘âlam, and such a proof is his miracles. Then in order to secure obedience to [its] commands and avoidance of [its] prohibitions, he is in need of perpetuating the idea of the grandeur of As-Sâni’, and that is [possible] through the manifestation of the aqâid. Then in order to perpetuate this idea and fix the aqâid firmly in their minds, he needs a constantly repeated reminder and renewed act, and that reminder is nothing but ‘ibâdah.
Secondly: The purpose of ‘ibâdah is to turn minds towards As-Sâni’ Al-Hakîm. And this turning towards induces obedience and submission, and this includes [‘abds] under the perfect order [in the universe] and binds them to it. To follow this order leads to the realization of the mystery of hikmah,3 and the hikmah is testified to by the perfect art in the universe.
Thirdly: Man resembles a pole to the top of which are joined electric cables, for attached to his head are the tips of all the laws of creation; the fitrah laws4 extend to him, and the rays of the Ilahî laws and principles in the universe are reflected and centred on him. So man has to complete them and adhere to them and cling on to them to facilitate the general current lest his foot slips and he falls and is crushed under the wheels of the machinery turning in the levels. And this is achieved through ‘ibâdah, which consists of conforming to the commands and prohibitions.5
Fourthly: By complying with the commands and prohibitions numerous connections are formed for a person with the many levels of society, and the individual becomes like a species. For many of the commands, especially those that touch on shaâ’er of Islam and the general good, resemble threads to which are tied [people's] honour and through which their rights are set in order. If it were not for them, all those rights and duties would be torn up and scattered to the wind.
Fifthly: The Muslim has firm relations with all other Muslims and there are strong bonds between them. By reason of the tenets of îmân and [the Muslims'] Islamic traits, these relations give rise to unshakeable brotherhood and true love. And it is ‘ibâdah that renders aqâid effective and roots them firmly in the psyche.
How ‘ibâdah is the cause of personal attainment and perfection:
Consider this: together with being physically small, weak, and powerless, and being one of the animals, man bears within him an exalted rûh and has vast potentiality, unrestricted desires, infinite hopes, uncountable ideas, and unlimited powers, and he has a fitrah so strange he is as though an index of all the species and all ‘âlams. As for ‘ibâdah, it expands his rûh and raises his value; it causes his abilities to unfold and develop, allowing him to become worthy of eternal happiness. ‘Ibâdah is also a means of rectifying and purifying his inclinations, and of realizing his hopes and making them fruitful, and of marshalling his ideas and setting them in order, and also of reining in and limiting his powers6 . ‘Ibâdah also removes the rust of nature from his members, physical and ma’nawî, each of which when transparent is like a window onto his private ‘âlam and that of humankind. Also, when performed with both conscience and mind and heart and body, ‘ibâdah raises man to the dignity of which he is worthy and to his appointed perfection. It is a subtle, elevated relation, an illustrious lofty connection between the ‘abd and Ma’bûd. This relation constitutes the utmost degree of human perfection.
Warning: Ikhlas is the rûh of the ‘ibâdah. Ikhlas in ‘ibâdah is this, that it is performed only because it is commanded, although it comprises numerous instances of hikmah. Each of these may be a real cause (‘illah) for performing ‘ibâdah, but ikhlas makes it imperative that the real cause (‘illah) be the command to perform it. If the hikmah is made to be the real cause (‘illah), the ‘ibâdah is bâtil, but if it merely encourages the person to perform the ‘ibâdah, it is permissible (jâiz).” Signs of Miraculousness ( 160-163 )
“One time, it occurred to me, why could wondrous individuals like Muhyiddin al-'Arabi not attain the levels of the Sahâbah? Then, while saying, سُبْحَانَ رَبِّىَ اْلاَعْلٰى during the salâh, the meaning of the phrase was unfolded to me. Not in its complete meaning, but its haqiqah in part became apparent to me. I said in my heart: "If only I could perform one of the five salâh in the same way as this phrase, it would be better than a year's ‘ibâdah." After the salâh, I understood that that thought and state was guidance indicating that the Sahâbah’s degree in ‘ibâdah could not be reached” The Words ( 506 )
“We hear from many lazy people and those who abandon the salâh; they say: “What does Janâb-i Haqq need of our ‘ibâdah that He severely and insistently rebukes those who abandon ‘ibâdah and threatens them with a terrifying punishment like Jahannam in the Qur'an? How is it suitable with the equitable and just expression of the Qur'an with istiqâmah that it displays the extreme severity towards an insignificant, minor fault?”
The Answer: Yes, Janâb-i Haqq is not in need of your ‘ibâdah, nor in need of anything. But you are in need of ‘ibâdah, you are sick in a ma’nawî manner. As for the ‘ibâdah, we have proved in many Risales, it is a panacea for your ma’nawî wounds. In return of the insistence of a compassionate doctor regarding the sickness and taking medicines that are beneficial for him, if a patient says to the doctor: “What need do you have, why are you insisting in this way?”. You may understand how senseless it is.
As for the severe threats and terrifying punishments of the Qur'an concerning the abandonment of ‘ibâdah: Just as a sultân, in order to protect the rights of his subject, inflicts severe punishment on an ordinary man according to his crime which harms the rights of his subject. So too, the man who abandons ‘ibâdah and salâh significantly violates the rights of beings, who are the subjects of a Sultân Who is eternal in the past and future, and perpetrates a ma’nawî dhulm. For the perfections of beings manifest on their faces turned toward As-Sâni’ through tasbîh and ‘ibâdah. The one who abandons ‘ibâdah does not and cannot see the ‘ibâdah of beings, rather, he denies as well. And since he reduces the elevated ranks of beings, each of which is a letter of As-Samad and a mirror to Rabbânî Names and have an exalted rank in the point of ‘ibâdah and tasbîh, and considers them to be in an unimportant, lifeless, wretched situation without duties, he insults them, denies their perfections and transgresses.
Yes, everyone sees the universe through his mirror. Janâb-i Haqq has created man in the form of a measure and balance for the universe. And for each person, He has given a particular ‘âlam from this ‘âlam; He shows the colour of the ‘âlam according to that person’s belief in his heart. For example, just as a man who is extremely despaired and weeps in mourning, sees beings in the form of weeping and despair, while a man who is extremely joyful, cheerful and beaming through his perfect joy and the joyful tidings, sees the universe as joyful and beaming. In the same way, a man who earnestly performs ‘ibâdah and tasbîh in a manner of tafakkur, recognizes and sees the truly existent and the particular ‘ibâdah and tasbîh of beings to a degree. A man who abandons ‘ibâdah through ghaflah or denial, imagines beings in an erroneous form that is totally contrary and opposed to the haqiqah of their perfections and transgresses their rights in a ma’nawî manner.
Also, the one who abandons salâh perpetrates a dhulm to his own nafs, which is an ‘abd of his own owner (Mâlik), since he does not own himself. His owner (Mâlik) terrifyingly threatens to take the rights of His ‘abd from his nafs al-ammarah. Also, since he abandons ‘ibâdah, which is the result of him being created and purpose of his fitrah, it becomes a transgression against the hikmah of Allah and Rabbânî will. Therefore, he is punished.
In Short: The one who abandons ‘ibâdah both perpetrates a dhulm to his own nafs -and his nafs is an ‘abd of Janâb-i Haqq and is owned as absolute property by Him- and also it is a transgression to the rights of the perfections of the universe; it is a dhulm. Yes, just as kufr is an insult to beings, so too, is the abandonment of ‘ibâdah a denial of the perfections of the universe. And since it is a transgression against the hikmah of Allah, it deserves terrifying threats and severe punishment.
Thus, to express this deservedness and the above haqiqah, by miraculously choosing that severe style, the Qur'an of Miraculous Exposition conforms to ‘the conformity of requirement of the situation’ which is completely the truth of balâghat7 .” The Twenty-Third Flash/Conclusion/The First Question
“O nafs! ‘ubûdiyyah is not the introduction to additional rewards, but the result of previous ni’mahs. Yes, we have received our wage, and are accordingly charged with service and ‘ubûdiyyah. Because, O nafs!, since Al-Khâliq Zuljalâl, Who clothed you in existence which is pure khayr, has given you a stomach and appetite, through His Name of Razzâq, He has placed before you all foods on a table of ni’mahs. Then, since He has given you a life decked out with senses, life too requires rizq like a stomach; all your senses like eyes and ears are like hands before which He has placed a table of ni’mahs as broad as the face of the earth. Then, because He has given you humanity, which requires many ma’nawî rizqs and ni’mahs, He has laid out before that stomach of humanity, in so far as the hand of the mind can reach, an extensive table of ni’mahs as broad as al-‘âlam al-mulk and al-‘âlam al-malakût. Then, since He has given you Islam and îmân, which require infinite ni’mahs and are nourished through countless fruits of rahmah and are supreme humanity, He has opened up before you a table of ni’mahs, pleasure, and happiness which includes the sphere of contingency together with the sphere of His Asma al-Husna and sacred attributes. Then, through giving you love, which is a nûr of îmân, He has bestowed on you an endless table of ni’mahs, happiness, and pleasure. That is to say, with regard to your corporeality you are an insignificant, weak, impotent, lowly, restricted, limited particular, but through His favour, you have as though risen from being an insignificant particular to being a universal, luminous whole. For by giving you life, He has raised you from particularity to a sort of universality; and by giving you humanity, to true universality; and by bestowing Islam on you, to an exalted, luminous universality; and by giving you ma’rifat and love of Him, He has elevated you to an all-encompassing nûr.
O nafs! You have received this wage, and you are charged with the pleasurable, bountiful, easy, and light service of ‘ubûdiyyah. But you are lazy in this too. If you perform it half-heartedly, it is as though the former wages are insufficient for you, you are wanting greater things in a domineering manner. Also, you are complaining: "Why was my du’â not accepted?" But your right is not complaining, it is supplication. Through His pure fadl and munificence, Janâb-i Haqq bestows Jannah and eternal happiness. So seek refuge in His rahmah and munificence constantly. Trust in Him and heed this decree:
8 قُلْ بِفَضْلِ اللهِ وَبِرَحْمَتِهِ فَبِذٰ لِكَ فَلْيَفْرَحُوا هُوَ خَيْرٌ مِمَّا يَجْمَعُونَ
If you say: "How can I respond to these countless, universal ni’mahs with my limited and partial shukr?"
The Answer: With a universal intention and boundless belief... For example, a man enters a sultân's presence with a gift worth five kurush, and he sees that other gifts worth millions have arrived from acceptable people, and have been lined up there. It occurs to his heart: "My present is nothing. What shall I do?" Then he says suddenly: "O my Sayyid! I offer you all these valuable gifts in my name. For you are worthy of them. If I had the power, I would have given you gifts equal to them." Thus, the sultân, who has need of nothing and accepts his subjects' gifts as a sign of their loyalty and respect, accepts that unfortunate man's universal intention and wish, and the worthiness of his elevated belief as though it was the greatest gift. In exactly the same way, while performing the salâh an impotent ‘abd declares: "Attahîyyatu Lillâhi” That is, "I offer You on my own account all the gifts of ‘ubûdiyyah all creatures offer you through their lives. If I had been able, I would have offered You as many tahiyyas as them, for You are worthy of them and worthy of more besides." Such an intention and belief comprise extensive universal shukr.”9 ” The Words ( 369 )
A warning, bearing good news from a despairing memory.
It has come to my mind in recent times: “Whatever they encounter, those who enter social life will mostly be exposed to sins. A person can easily be surrounded by sins from all directions. How can a single person’s ‘ibâdah and taqwâ be enough to stand against this many sins?” And I despairingly began to ponder.
I started thinking about the state of Risale-i Nur students in social life and began reflecting on the strong signs of the Qur’an and the good news by Imam ‘Ali and Gawth’ul Azam regarding the salvation of Risale-i Nur students and that they will be from the people of bliss. I said in my heart: “By using only their individual tongue, how can each respond to the sins coming from a thousand aspects; how can they be victorious and find salvation?” and was left bewildered. In response to my bewilderment, it was warned that:
Through the law of ‘partnership in deeds of the âkhirah’ and the mystery of sincere and pure cooperation, which are the fundamental principles among true and loyal students of the Risale-i Nur- with every sincere and true student offering not with a single tongue, but rather; through the ‘ibâdah and istighfâr with the tongues to the number of their brothers- each will respond with thousands of tongues against the onslaught of sins attacking them from a thousand aspects. In the same way, the certain malâikah perform dhikr with forty-thousand tongues; a sincere and true student who practices taqwâ, performs ‘ibâdah through the tongues of their forty thousand brothers and becomes deserving of salvation, and will Inshaallah be among the people of bliss. They can acquire that exalted and universal ‘ubûdiyyah, according to their degree of loyalty, service, taqwâ and abstaining from kabâir, within the circle of the Risale-i Nur. Certainly in order not to lose this great benefit, they must work on taqwâ, ikhlas and loyalty .” Kastamonu Addendum ( 108 )
سُبْحَانَكَ لاَ عِلْمَ لَنَا اِلاَّ مَا عَلَّمْتَنَا اِنَّكَ اَنْتَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ
1 “O you people! Perform ‘ibâdah to your Rabb, who has created you and those [who lived] before you, so that you may become Muttaqîn (the one who has taqwâ); Who has made the earth a resting-place for you and the samâ a canopy, and has sent down water from the samâ and thereby brought forth fruits for your rizq: then set not up rivals to Allah, when you know [the truth]”
2 “الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ : Know that as-sirât al-mustaqîm is justice (‘adl) and is the summary of hikmah, ‘iffah and shajâ'ah which are the wasat in the three degrees of man's three powers (quwwa).
To explain: Allah (‘Azza wa jalla) housed rûh in man's body, which is changing, needy and exposed to dangers. He introduced three powers (quwwa) in it to preserve.
The First: al-quwwa ash-shahawiyyah al-bahîmiyyah, the power of animal appetites to attract benefits.
The Second: al-quwwa al-ghadhabiyyah as-sabui’yyah, the predacious power of anger to repulse harmful and destructive things.
The Third: al-quwwa al-aqliyyah al-malakiyyah, the power of mind pertaining to the malâikah to distinguish between benefit and harm.
However, since His hikmah necessitated that mankind should achieve perfection through the mystery of competition, Allah did not determine limits on these quwwas in fitrah, as He did on those of animals. He determined limits on them through the Sharî’ah that it prohibits ifrât and tafrît and orders the wasat. This is what is clearly ordered by the âyah فَاسْتَقِمْ كَمَٓا اُمِرْتَ (Therefore stand firm [in istiqâmah] as you are commanded) Since there is no fıtrî limitation in these three quwwas, three degrees occur in each: the degree of tafrît which is deficiency, the degree of ifrât which is excess and the degree of wasat which is ‘adl.
Tafrît in al-quwwa al-aqliyyah is gabâwah and foolishness, and its ifrât is jarbaza (Deceptive intelligence which can display the haqq as the bâtil and the bâtil as the haqq) and over-meticulousness in trivialities and its wasat is hikmah (To know and distinguish haqq and bâtil, obeying haqq and abstaining from bâtil). وَمَنْ يُؤْتَ الْحِكْمَةَ فَقَدْ اُو۫تِىَ خَيْرًا كَث۪يرًۜا (He who has been given hikmah, has been given great khayr.) Know that just as these quwwas vary in these three degrees, so do each of their branches. For example, in the question of the creation of actions, the wasat is the madhab of ahl al-Sunnah between the Jabriyya and the Mu'tazila, and in the question of belief, the madhab of Tawhîd is the wasat between the denial of the attributes or existence of Allah (ta'til) and anthropomorphism (tashbîh). The examples can be made further on this analogy.
Tafrît in al-quwwa ash-shahawiyyah is extinction (khumud) which is having no longing for anything, while its ifrât is fujûr which is to desire whatever is encountered whether halal or haram. Its wasat is ‘iffah, which is desiring what is halal and shunning what is haram. Compare the branches of this quwwa such as eating, drinking, dressing so on with the root of this principal.
Tafrît in al-quwwa al-ghadhabiyyah is jabânah that is fear of what is not to be feared and having wahm. Its ifrât is tahawwur (To have no fear of anything ma’nawî nor material) which is the source and father of despotism, domination and dhulm. And its wasat is shajâ'ah which is giving freely of one’s rûh with love and eagerness for the defence of the laws of Islam and the upholding of the Word of Tawhîd. Compare this same principle within each of its branches.
The six extremes are thus dhulm and the three wasat are ‘adl which is as-sirât al-mustaqîm and is to act in accordance with فَاسْتَقِمْ كَمَٓا اُمِرْتَ (Therefore stand firm [in istiqâmah] as you are commanded) Whoever passes along this way will cross the bridge suspended over the Fire.” The Sign of Miraculousness-24
3 (Only if Sharî’ah is followed this hikmah can be seen and known)
4 (Which dominates all universe and always reflects from the names of Allah)
5 For example, a mu’min who does not obey the order of zakat will be the cause of the anarchy which arise from the unjust social relations between poor and rich people.
The Sharî’ah of Fitrah and the well-known Sharî’ah which proceeds from the attribute of Kalâm have differences in their expressions and the places they are manifested on. But in truth, there is no difference. For example, Sharî’ah says: “You are brothers/sisters through the consciousness of îmân.” If Muslims do not obey that order, the community will be destroyed. In the same way, if the material formation and growth stages of a thing are not followed, which are the laws and orders of the Sharî’ah of Fitrah, the effect will be destroyed.
“There are two Ilahî Sharî’ahs: proceeding from two attributes, man is addressed by both, and bound to comply with both.
The Takwînî Sharî’ah, which proceeds from the attribute of Irâdah, orders the circumstances and motions of al-‘âlam, the large human being, which are not voluntary. It is Rabbâni will, and is also wrongly termed 'Nature.'
The Sharî’ah proceeding from the attribute of Kalâm is the code of laws which orders the actions of man, the small ‘âlam, which are voluntary.
he two Sharî’ahs sometimes come together in the same place.” The Words ( 763 )
“The third point is this: two of the Zuljalâl One’s attributes of perfection, two manifestations pertain to the Sharî’ah: the determining through His choice, which proceeds from the attribute of Irâdah, and that is the Takwînî Sharî’ah;
And the well-known Sharî’ah, which proceeds from the attribute of Kalâm.
Just as there are compliance and rebellion in the face of the commands of the latter, so there is compliance and rebellion before the Takwînî commands.
The reward and punishment for the latter are received mostly in the âkhirah, while the penalties and rewards of the former are suffered mostly in the realm of this world.
For example, the reward of patience is victory. The penalty for laziness is poverty; and the reward of toil is wealth.
The reward of constancy is victory. The penalty of poison is illness, the reward of its antidote is health.
Sometimes the injunctions of both Sharî’ahs are included in a single thing; it has faces looking to both.
That means obedience to the Takwînî command is a haqq. Obedience prevails; rebellion in the face of the injunction is a bâtil stand.
If a haqq has been the means to a bâtil, when it prevails, it will have been the means to a bâtil. Indirectly, a haqq is defeated by a bâtil, but not essentially..” The Words ( 760 )
“You should understand too that a person who wants to succeed has to [act] in accordance with the 'Âdâtullah, be knowledgeable of the fitrah laws, and conform to social relations, otherwise, fitrah will respond to him by denying him success and will confound him. Also, a person who follows a [particular] way in society should not oppose the general current, otherwise, it will work against him rather than for him. Consequently, if a person is aided by success within the general current, as was Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam), it is proved that he adhered to the haqq.” Signs of Miraculousness ( 186 )
6 (Powers of appetite, anger and mind: Quwwa ash-shahawiyyah, quwwa al-ghadhabiyah, quwwa al-aqliyyah)
7 (Balaghât denotes fullness and accuracy in the expression of thought by speech, being eloquent in speech and writing. The part of eloquence which consists of a selection of the words used as accurately, fully and gracefully to represent the meaning intended, but without any figures of speech. It consists, as a science of two parts, the signification of terms and grammar, and figurative language is its complement.) (Tr.)
8 (Say: "In the fadl of Allah, and His rahmah -in that let them rejoice;" that is better than the [wealth] they hoard.)
9 First Question: Although the blessed words of the tashahhud are a conversation of Janâb-i Haqq and His Rasûl (asm) on the night of Mi’raj what is the hikmah for them being recited in the salâh?
The Answer: Each mu’min’s salâh is a sort of Mi’raj of his. The words which are worthy for that hudhur are the words that are spoken at the great Mi’raj of Muhammad (‘Alayhissalâtu Wassalâm). That sacred conversation is recalled by performing dhikr of them. Through this recollection, the meanings of those blessed words raise from the particularity to the universality and those sacred and comprehensive meanings are or can take a form in the mind. Through taking that form in the mind, their value and nûr become elevated and expand.
For example, instead of salâm that night to Janâb-i Haqq, Ar-Rasûl Al-Akram ‘Alayhissalâtu Wassalâm said: اَلتَّحِيَّاتُ لِلّٰهِ . That is, "O my Rabb! All the tasbîhât of life which living beings display through their lives and the fitrî gifts they offer to their Sâni’ are Yours alone. Through forming them in my mind and through my îmân, I too offer all of them to You."
Yes, with the word اَلتَّحِيَّاتُ Ar-Rasûl Al-Akram ‘Alayhissalâtu Wassalâm intends and offers to Allah all the living creatures’ ‘ibâdah of their fitrah. Also, through the word اَلْمُبَارَكَاتُ which is the summary of tahîyyah, he represents the fitrî blessedness, barakah and ‘ubûdiyyah of creatures, which are the source of barakah, and cause one to exclaim: “Congratulations and Bârakallah ”, and called mubârak, and the essences of life and living beings, especially seeds, grains and eggs. He says it with this extensive meaning.
Through the word اَلصَّلَوَاتُ , which is a summary of al-mubarakât, he forms the ‘ibâdah peculiar to all the beings with rûhs in his mind, who are the essences of living beings, and offers to the Ilahî Court with their extensive meaning.
Also, with the word اَلطَّيِّبَاتُ the summary of as-salawât, through intending the luminous and elevated ‘ibâdah of perfected human beings and the malâikah al-muqarrabîn , who are the essences of beings with rûhs, he especially endows and offers them to Al-Ma’bûd...….
…. One time while in a dark exile, on a dark night and in a ghaflah with darkness, the present state of the huge universe seemed to my imagination as lifeless, without rûh, dead, empty, desolate, terrific corpse. The past, too, entirely imagined to be lifeless, empty, dead and terrific. That boundless place and limitless time took the form of a dark wilderness. I had refuged in salâh to be saved from that state. When I said: اَلتَّحِيَّاتُ in the tashahhud, suddenly the universe revived, took a living and luminous form and came to life. It became a shining mirror of Al-Hayy Who is Qayyûm. Through ‘ilm al-yaqîn rather haqq al-yaqîn, I saw and knew that with all its living parts, they continually offer the tahîyyahs and gifts of their lives to The One Who is Al-Hayy and Al-Qayyûm.” Sixth Ray