LESSONS / Compilations

بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ وَ الصَّلاَةُ وَ السَّلاَمُ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ وَ عَلَى آلِهِ وَ صَحْبِهِ اَجْمَعِينَ

عيسى عليه السلام -  ‘ÎSÂ (as) – JESUS




One point, in particular, should be explained in here. Bediuzzaman Said Nursi divides the Christian world like Europe and America into two groups being positive and negative. In accordance with the tidings of some âyahs and hadiths, it is hoped that ahl al-kitâb those who fall into extreme ghaflah and forgot the âkhirah amidst the dissipation and dhalâlah but are not tied to the currents of irreligiousness will gradually join with the positive Christians. (Qur’an 4:159)

“Let it not be misunderstood. Europe is two. The first, through the faydh it has received from the true religion of ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm follows the sciences which serve justice and equity and the crafts beneficial for the life of society, I do not address this first Europe. Rather, I address the second Europe which is corrupt through the darkness of the Naturalist philosophy, supposing the evils of civilization to be its virtues, drives mankind to dissipation and dhalâlah….

...Know, O second Europe! You hold a diseased philosophy soiled with dhalâlah in your right hand and a dissolute and harmful civilization in your left hand, and claim “The happiness of mankind is with these two!”

O Europe, corrupted with dissipation and dhalâlah and drawn away from the religion of ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm! You have given this state as a gift like Jahannam to man’s rûh with your blind genius which bears a single eye like the Dajjal. Then you understood that such a disease without remedy is this which casts man from the a’lâ ‘illiyyin to the asfal sâfilîn, and reduces him to the most unfortunate level of animals. The remedies you have found for this disease are the attractive playthings,  sedative desires and fantasies of yours which are served to temporarily numb the sense. These remedies of yours may be the end of you.” The Seventeenth Flash-Fifth Note

It is a fundamental principle that the hadiths which mention the events that will occur in the future should be mutashabihât. Otherwise, the mystery of the man’s test and accountability will be harmed. For if the news about future events had been given explicitly man would have been compelled to believe. The free will of man would have been negated. (Please refer to the article of Mutashabihât)  

Hazrat Bediuzzaman’s explanation of the mutashabih Hadiths about the degree of ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhimassalâm’s life, his being sent in the âkhirzaman and the Muslim-Christian alliance are to be found in the following parts.

The Third Level of Life is that of Hazrat Idris and ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhimassalâm through divesting the requirements of humanity, enters into a life like that of malâikah and acquires a luminous subtlety. In fact, they are present in the samâwât with their earthly bodies, which have the subtlety of a mithâlî body1 and the luminosity of a body like the stars. The mystery of the Hadith in the meaning, "At the âkhirzaman, Hazrat ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm will come and will perform with the Sharî’ah of Muhammad (asm)," is this, in the âkhirzaman, at a time that the religion of Christianity is purified and divested of superstition in the face of the current of kufr and denial of the Ulûhiyyah given by the Naturalist philosophy, and is going to be transformed into Islam, just as the fearsome ma’nawî collective personality of irreligion will be killed by the ma’nawî collective personality of Christianity with the sword of samâwî wahy; so too, representing the ma’nawî collective personality of Christianity, ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm will kill the Dajjal, who represents the ma’nawî collective personality of irreligion, that is, he will kill the idea of denial of Ulûhiyyah.” The First Letter

Since îmân and man's accountability through the obligations placed on him by Allah are a test, a trial, a competition within the sphere of the will, nadharî matters2 that are veiled, profound, and in need of minutely examining and experiment surely are not evident. And are not involuntary to an extent that everyone will affirm them willingly or unwillingly. So that the Abu Bakrs may rise to the a’lâ ‘illiyyin and the Abu Jahls may descend to the asfal sâfilîn. If the will does not remain, there cannot be accountability. And for this mystery and hikmah miracles are given infrequently and rarely. Also, the signs of the qiyâmah which will be seen by eyes in the realm of accountability, are obscure and open to interpretation like some mutashabihât of the Qur'an. Only since rising of the sun from the west compels everyone to affirm in an evident degree, the door of tawbah will then be closed, and tawbah and îmân will no longer be accepted. For the Abu Bakrs and the Abu Jahls will be equal in affirmation. The descent of Hazrat ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm even and his being ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm are known through the attentiveness of the nûr of îmân; everyone cannot know. Even fearsome figures such as the Dajjal and Sufyan do not know themselves to be such.” The Fifth Ray-Introduction-1st Point

“After ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm’s killing of the Dajjal at the âkhirzaman, the majority of mankind will enter the haqq religion. But it came through riwâyat that: "The qiyâmah will not occur so long as those who say, Allah! Allah!, remain on the earth!" So how after most people have come to îmân, will most people enter kufr?

The Answer: It is narrated in a sahîh Hadith, "Hazrat ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm will come, he will act with the Sharî’ah of Islam, and he will kill the Dajjal,". Those whose îmân is weak deem it improbable. But if the haqiqah of this is explained, no place will remain to deem it improbable. It is as follows:

The meaning expressed by this Hadith and those Hadiths about the Sufyan and the Mahdi is this: In the âkhirzaman, two currents of irreligion will gain strength.

One of them: Under the veil of nifâq, a fearsome individual called Sufyan who will deny the messengership of Ahmad (asm) will come to lead the people of nifâq and work to destroy the Sharî’ah of Islam. Against him, a luminous person called Muhammad Mahdî from the Âl al-Bayt, who is bound to the luminous chain of the Âl al-Bayt of the Prophet and who will come to lead the people of walayâh and the people of perfection, will kill and scatter that munâfiq current, which is the ma’nawî collective personality of Sufyan.

As for the second current: A current like that of Nimrod, born of Naturalist and Materialist philosophy gradually spreading and gaining strength in the âkhirzaman by means of materialist philosophy, reaches a degree that will deny ulûhiyyah. Just as a savage man, who does not recognize the sultân or accept that the officers and individuals in the army are the soldiers of sultân, ascribes a sort of sovereign and a kind of rulership to everyone and to all the soldiers. So too, the individuals of that current, who deny Allah, each ascribes a rubûbiyyah to his nafs like a little Nimrod. And as for the  Dajjal, the greatest of them, who will come to lead them, and will manifest fearful wonders, a sort of spiritualism and hypnosis; will go further, and he will proclaim his ulûhiyyah by imagining his tyrannical, superficial rule to be a sort of rubûbiyyah. It is known what foolish buffoonery it is for impotent man, who may be defeated by a fly and cannot create even a fly's wing, to claim ulûhiyyah.

At such a time, when that current seems to be very strong, the religion of true Christianity, which comprises the ma’nawî personality of Hazrat ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm, will emerge. That is, it will descend from the samâ of the rahmah of Allah; present religion of Christianity will be purified in the face of that haqiqah; it will be divested from superstitions and distortions and will unite with the haqiqahs of Islam, Christianity will be transformed into a sort of Islam in a ma’nawî manner. And being guided by the Qur'an, that ma’nawî collective personality of Christianity will remain in the station of a follower and Islam will remain in the station of the one followed; as a result of this joining, haqq religion will gain immense power. Christianity and Islam, which are defeated against the irreligious current while separate, will have the capacity to defeat and scatter the irreligious current as a result of their union. At that point, the person of ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm, who is present with his human body in the ‘âlam of the samâwât, will come to lead that current of haqq religion. A Mukhbir as-Sâdiq3 reported it on the promise of a Qadîr Over All things. Since he has reported, it is haqq, and since Al-Qadir Over All things has promised it, He will certainly do.

Indeed, a Hakîm Zuljalâl Who constantly sends the Malâikah to the earth from the samâwât, and sometimes gives a human form to them (like Hazrat Jibril putting on the form of Dihya), and sends rûh-beings from al-‘âlam al-arwâh and makes them reflect in human form, and even sends many of the rûhs of the deceased awliyâ to the world with a mithâlî body4 , it is not far from that Hakîm’s hikmah, for the most important beautiful end pertaining the religion of ‘Îsâ, even if Hazrat ‘Îsâ, who is alive and present with his body in the samâ of the world, had truly died and gone to the furthest corner of the ‘âlam of the âkhirah, for such an immense result to send Hazrat ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm to the world by re-clothing a body to him.. rather, He promised it because His hikmah required it to be thus, and since He promised it, He will certainly send him.

When Hazrat ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm comes, everyone does not need to know him to be the true ‘Îsâ. His khawass and those close to him will recognize him through the nûr of îmân. Everyone will not self-evidently recognize him.” The Fifteenth Letter-Your Fourth Question

“It is in a definite and sahîh riwâyat that: "‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm kills the great Dajjal." Wal-'ilm ‘Indallah5 , it has two aspects:

An Aspect of it is this: Only a person with wonders and miracles who is accepted by the majority can be the one who will kill and change the way of that fearsome Dajjal, who preserves himself through wonders of istidraj, such as sihr, hypnosis and spiritualism, and compels everyone. And that person is Hazrat ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm, who is the prophet of the majority of mankind and who is most connected.

The Second Aspect of it is this: It is only the pious followers of ‘Îsâ (as) who will kill the immense statue and ma’nawî collective personality of fearsome materialism and irreligion, which is formed by the Dajjal himself who will be killed by the sword of ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm himself, and It is only the pious followers of ‘Îsâ (as) who will destroy Dajjal’s idea of kufr, which is denying the ulûhiyyah. Those pious followers of ‘Îsâ (as) will blend the haqiqah of the religion of Christianity with the haqiqah of Islam and scatter it with that strength and kill him in a ma’nawî manner. The riwâyat: " Hazrat ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm will come and perform salâh behind Hazrat Mahdî and follow him," even indicates this alliance and to the rule of the haqiqah of Qur'an and its being followed.” The Fifth Ray-The Second Station of the Fifth Ray-Thirteenth Matter

“Luminous community of Hazrat Mahdî will repair the destructive bid’ah regime of the committee of the Sufyan and will give life to the Sunnah as-Saniyyah; that is, the committee of the Sufyan who work to destroy the Sharî’ah of Ahmad (asm) in the ‘âlam of Islam with the intention of denying the Prophethood of Ahmad (asm), will be killed and scattered by the miraculous ma’nawî sword of Hazrat Mahdî's community.

Also, in the ‘âlam of mankind, the committee of the Dajjâl who turn civilization upside-down and sacred matters of mankind, with the intention of denying the ulûhiyyah, will be scattered and killed under the leadership of Hazrat ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm by a zealous and self-sacrificing community under the name of the community of followers of ‘Îsâ (as) but worthy of being called "Muslim followers of ‘Îsâ (as)" that works for uniting Hazrat ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm’s true religion with the haqiqah of Islam; and will save mankind from the denial of the ulûhiyyah.” The Twenty-Ninth Letter- Seventh Section/ Fifth Sign

“Also, since the strange states and fearsome activities of the Dajjal's regime and of the committee and government that he formed have been narrated as connected to his personality, their meaning has been concealed. For example, it is narrated: "He is so powerful and endures so much that only Hazrat ‘Îsâ (as) can kill him; there cannot be any other solution." That is, only a samâwî and elevated, pure religion, which will emerge among the followers of ‘Îsâ (as) and which will unite with the haqiqah of Qur'an and will follow them, can destroy and kill his way and predatory regime that,  through the descent of Hazrat ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm, that irreligious way will be destroyed and die. The Dajjal himself can otherwise be killed by a germ or by catarrh.” The Fifth Ray-Introduction-5th Point

Nasrâniyyah6 Will Submit To Islam

Nasrâniyyah will either negated or be purified. It will cease the fire by submitting to Islam.

It was torn repeatedly, to the end it came to Protestantism, but in that, it did not see a means that will rectify it.

The veil was again torn, it fell into absolute dhalâlah. But, a part of it approached the Tawhîd; in that, it will find salvation.

It is preparing even now, {This points to the situation resulted from the terrifying First World War, rather, completely reports of the Second World War.} have started to tear. If it is not extinguished, it will be purified and will embrace Islam.

It is the great mystery, Fakhr ar-Rasûl7 alluded and pointed to, he said: "‘Îsâ will perform my Sharî’ah; he will be of my ummah." The Words ( 736 )

“The name al-Masih is given to‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm in riwâyât, also the name al-Masih is also given to both Dajjals, and in all the riwâyât it is said: مِنْ فِتْنَةِ الْمَسِيحِ الدَّجَّالِ مِنْ فِتْنَةِ الْمَسِيحِ الدَّجَّالِ8 . What is the hikmah and interpretation of this?

The Answer: Allahu a’lam9 , the hikmah of it is this: Just as with the command of Allah, ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm abrogated some of the onerous duties from the Sharî’ah of Mûsâ ‘Alayhissalâm and made some appetites like wine, halal, so too, through leading astray by shaytan and his rule, the Great Dajjal will abrogate the injunctions of the Sharî’ah of ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm and destroying the bonds which administer Christian social life, he prepares the ground for anarchy and Ya’juj and Ma’juj. And, Sufyan too, who is the Islamic Dajjal, due to the wiles of shaytan and the nafs, through working to abrogate some of the eternal injunctions of the Sharî’ah of Muhammad (asm) and destroying the material and ma’nawî bonds of the life of mankind, and giving free rein to rebellious, drunken, unconscious nufûs, he unbinds the luminous chains like respect and mercy, and to cause people to assault each other in the swamp of putrid desires of the nafs, he provokes terrible anarchy by giving compulsory freedom and liberty which is pure despotism. Then, the people cannot be kept under control other than by a great despotism.” The Fifth Ray-Three Brief Matters-First Matter

“Concerning ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm killing the Dajjal, the riwâyat displays: "The Dajjal will be in a stature extraordinary large and taller than the minaret, while Hazrat ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm will be very small in comparison."

 لاَ يَعْلَمُ الْغَيْبَ اِلاَّ اللّٰهُ 10 , one interpretation must be as follows: it is an allusion and sign that quantity of the spiritual community of mujâhidîn who recognize ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm by the nûr of îmân and follow him, will be very few and small compared to the scientific and physical armies of the Dajjal.” The Fifth Ray-Sixteenth Matter

“Since the sahîh Hadiths about Hazrat ‘Îsâ (as) being sent down in âkhirzaman and his killing of the Dajjal, have not been understood in their true meaning, certain dhâhiri (literalist) ‘ulamâ have fallen into doubt by taking their literal meaning alone. Or they have denied their authenticity, or made superstitious interpretations as though expecting the impossible and have brought harm to ‘awâm Muslims. As for the mulhids, they use such hadiths which appear to be incomprehensible, as a means of insulting and attacking the haqiqahs of Islam. Through the faydh of the Quran, the Risale-i Nur has shown the true interpretations of such mutashâbih Hadiths. For now, we will share one example as a model. It is as follows:

To indicate how the dajjal’s figure is greater than Hazrat ‘Îsâ (as), there is riwâyat which tells of how when Hazrat ‘Îsâ (as) fights the dajjal, he will jump seven yards high to kill him, but only reach the dajjal’s knee with his sword. This means the dajjal will be so tall that he will need to be ten, rather twenty times greater than the height of Hazrat ‘Îsâ (as). Just as the literal expression of this riwâyat is contrary to the mystery of trial and the mystery of examination, it is not compatible with the prevailing order of 'Âdâtullah within humanity.

Whereas, in order to nullify the zindiqs who – Hâsha– consider this hadith and this riwâyat as an impossibility and superstition, and to warn those dhâhiri (literalist) hojas who believe its literal meaning to be the complete haqiqah and await its appearance despite seeing with their eyes certain haqiqahs of this hadith; one meaning out of the multiple meanings of this hadith which is completely haqiqah, perfectly compatible and pure haqq, has emerged in this age. It is as follows:

Working on account of the religion of Îsâ (as) and protecting the unbroken customs which come from that religion, there is a government who stands against a regime that officially supports and promotes irreligiousness and bolshevism for the sake of its dark and vile interests. If the ma’nawî collective personality of the former government combatting these corrupt and tyrannical regimes who support the spread of irreligiousness among the Muslims and in Asia for the sake of its petty interests, took on a physical form, and if the ma’nawî collective personality of the current of irreligiousness and all its supporters were to take on a physical form, this hadith which carriers many meanings, will completely demonstrate one of its meanings in this age in three respects. If that victorious government were to succeed in battle, this ma’nâ al-isharî will rise to the level of ma’nâ as-sarîh. Even if it is not completely successful, it is still a ma’nâ al-isharî that is applicable.

First Aspect: If the community of Spiritual Christians who take as their principle the true religion of ‘Îsâ (as) and the community opposing them who promotes irreligiousness, both took on a bodily form, the height of the former will not even be like that of a child beside a person as tall as a minaret.

Second Aspect: A government who officially claims to eradicate atheism by relying on Allah and to protect Islam and the Muslims; while having a population of about one hundred million, successfully strikes down deadly blows on another state that governs a population of close to four hundred million and is allies with China and America pledging support and alliance to the Bolsheviks. If the ma’nawî collective personality of the irreligious and their supporters it is waging battle with, took on a physical form, it will again be the same physical proportion of a young child when compared to a person as tall as a minaret. The meaning of the riwâyat  “The Dajjal will gain control of the world” is that the majority will support him. And this is what has happened now.

Third Aspect: The government of a country which is not even a quarter of the size of Europe, the smallest of the worlds' four continents {Australia has not been considered} has allied with another state that claims to represent Hazrat ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm, and, resting on religion has victoriously waged battle against most of Asia, Africa, America and Australia and battled and fought against extremely despotic irreligious currents with samâwî parachutes. If both the ma’nawî collective personality of this government and the others took on a bodily form- in the same way, newspapers have for long depicted state powers and the strength of governments- if the personified caricatures and portrayals of those ma’nawî collective personalities took on a physical form on the page of this century in the newspaper of the world; from among the numerous meanings of the hadith expressing the events of âkhirzaman, one of them would emerge exactly and completely in the form of a miraculous announcement from the ghayb. In fact, a ma’nâ al-isharî in the indication of ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm being sent down from the samâwât in person, is that a group representing Hazrat ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm and acting on his behalf are sent down in a way never before seen or heard of, as a kind of samâwî calamity with aeroplanes and parachutes behind the enemy, which shows one example of Hazrat ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm coming down materially.

Yes, in accordance with the expression of the Noble Hadith just as the sending down of ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm from the samâwât is certain, the ma’nâ al-isharî miraculously looks to this haqiqah as well as expressing other haqiqahs. Through the enquiry and insistence of Feyzi who is a Junior Husrev and Emin, I had intended to write a few sentences about this matter with the intention of protecting the îmân of certain helpless people from doubt. But it was made written in length beyond my will. We never understood the hikmah in this and assuming there was some hikmah in it we left it as it is. You should overlook any mistakes as we could not find the time to emend it and pay close attention, so it has remained disorganised.” Kastamonu Addendum (91-93)

A warning of Hazrat Bediuzzaman:

“It is essential that missionaries and pious Christians, as well as Nurjus, are extremely careful. For certainly, with the idea of defending itself against the attacks of the religions of Islam and Christianity, the current from the north will try to destroy the accord of Islam and the missionaries. With a permissive attitude towards the common people, and inviting the bourgeoises to help them by the obligation of zakat and the prohibition of interest and usury (ribâ), and by desisting from oppressing them, they may deceive the Muslims, by giving them privileges and may draw them over to their side.” Emirdağ Addendum-1 (159)

In the following part, Hazrat Bediuzzaman states in concern of the Christians those who suffered oppression and died in the Second World War may benefit from the truth of a sort of fatrah11

“since the True Religion of Hazrat ‘Îsâ (as) will reign at the âkhirzaman and stand shoulder to shoulder with Islam, indeed the present disasters suffered by the oppressed amongst the Christians who are followers of ‘Îsâ (as) and who have been left in a darkness like fatrah, can for them be considered a type of shahâdah.” The Kastamonu Addendum (124)

This letter and its explanation in detail are to be found in the compilation of Îsâ ‘Alayhissalam-4

A Note: While the majority of the Christian priests inculcate baseless ideas against Islam, Muhammad (asm) averted the considerations of the ummah to Îsâ (as) through informing that he will be sent in the âkhirzaman, and will scatter the current of irreligiousness and rule over a spread area with his many hadiths. Consequently, for centuries, his ummah awaits Îsâ (as) being sent. This point clearly demonstrates that some religious leaders of Christians are overcome by the bigotry of maintaining their authority. Whereas, Muhammad (asm) always adhered the truth and rejected all bigotries emerging from emotion. Now, the true Christians are seriously trying to correct this error, Inshallah, they will succeed.

Hazrat Bediuzzaman points out the necessity in reuniting the two great religions due to the currents of irreligiousness entering to the struggle during the World War as follows:

“For, amidst this World War, when two governments mutually claim and dispute for the world supremacy, a case opens in the court of peace and reconciliation for the two great religions, and a mighty struggle with the terrifying current of irreligiousness against samâwî religions have started.” Sikke-i Tasdik-i Gaybi (191)

It is pointed out in the continuation of the letter, in the amidst such hard and corrupt times and conditions, the life of religion should be strengthened not worldly strife.

Bediuzzaman points out that due to the anxiety resulting from cruel strifes in mankind, and the ugly results becoming apparent of the corrupt politics and dissipation which is inculcated and caused to be addicted by Europe, mankind will awaken and severely feel their need for the truths of the Qur’an. As a consequence of it, Risale-i Nur will warn and guide mankind by its powerful Qur’anic proofs. It is as follows: 

“We shall point briefly to a very extensive and lengthy haqiqah which came to the heart on the Night of Qadr. It is as follows:

Because of the most vigorous tyranny and despotism of this last World War and its merciless destruction, and hundreds of innocents being scattered and ruined on account of a single enemy, and the fearsome despair of the defeated, and the fearsome alarm of the victors and their fearsome pangs of conscience arising from the supremacy that they are unable to maintain and the destruction they are unable to repair, and the utter transitoriness and temporariness of the life of this world and the deceptiveness of the fantasies of civilization and its being opiate becoming apparent to all, and the exalted dispositions in the fitrah of mankind and the human essence being fearsomely wounded universally, and ghaflah and dhalâlah, the deaf and rigid nature being smashed under the diamond sword of the Qur'an, and the exceedingly ugly, exceedingly cruel true face of world politics, which is most suffocating, deceptive and the widest veil for ghaflah and dhalâlah, becoming apparent, most certainly and without any doubt, since the life of this world, which is the metaphorical beloved of mankind, is thus ugly and transient, man's fitrah will search with all its strength for eternal life, which it truly loves and yearns for, just as there are signs of this occurring in the North, the West, and in America.

And most certainly without any doubt that since the Qur'an of Miraculous Exposition, which each century for one thousand three hundred and sixty years has had three hundred and fifty million students, and sets the seal on each of its rules and claims by millions people of haqiqah through affirmation, and each minute with its sacredness presents in the hearts of millions of hâfidhs, and gives instruction to mankind through their tongues, and which in a way unmatched by any other book conveys the good tidings of eternal life and everlasting happiness for mankind and heals all their wounds, -since the Qur'an has given this certain good tiding of eternal life and happiness with thousands of its severe, powerful and repeated âyahs, and with its certain unshakeable proofs and innumerable indubitable arguments which claim and give news explicitly and implicitly tens of thousands of times, most certainly if mankind does not altogether lose its mind and a material or ma’nawî qiyâmah does not erupt over its head, the broad continents and great governments of the face of the earth will search out the Qur'an of Miraculous Exposition, and after comprehending its haqiqahs, they will embrace it with all their lives and rûhs, just as there are famous preachers in Sweden, Norway, Finland and England working to accept the Qur'an, and the important community of America which is searching for the haqq religion. Because in the point of this haqiqah, the Qur'an by no means has -nor can have- any equal, and nothing can take the place of this great miracle.

SECONDLY: Since the Risale-i Nur has performed the service of a diamond sword in the hand of this greatest miracle and compelled its stubborn enemies to submit. Risale-i Nur which acts as a herald to the treasures of the Qur'an in a fashion that illuminates both the heart, and the rûh, and the feelings completely and gives their medicine, and has no source or authority other than the Qur'an and is its ma’nawî miracle, it performs that duty completely. And, it has completely vanquished the extremely obstinate zindiqs and the fearsome propagandas against it, and with the Risale on Nature12 it smashed nature to pieces, which is the most rigid strong castle of dhalâlah, and with the Sixth Topic of the Fruits of Belief together with the First, Second, Third and Eighth Proofs in The Staff of Mûsâ, has scattered the ghaflah most brilliantly in its most dense, suffocating, the extensive sphere of the universe and in the most extensive veils of science, and has demonstrated the nûr of Tawhîd.” The Addendum Of The Second Station Of The Thirteenth Word/An Important Matter Which is Warned On The Night Of Qadr

“Yes my Brothers, Hazrat ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm said in the Nobel Injil: “I am leaving so that a consoler shall come to you.” That is so that Ahmad ‘Alayhissalâtu Wassalam may come; a supreme result, aim, gift and consolation of the Qur'an.” The Kastamonu Addendum (236)

Thus, Bediuzzaman says in a letter, which he addressed to the official authorities, that in the face of these worldly struggles and the intensification of anarchy, the positive ones amongst the Christian states and nations will want the unity and alliance of Islamic countries and their strengthening. He also expresses the necessity of Islamic unity. It is as follows:

"The effects of the matter on Laylat-ul Qadr in the risale of the Guide For Youth are now to be seen in both America and Europe. For this reason, the true strength of our present government is to rely on the haqiqahs of the Qur'an and to serve them. Through this, the government will gain a reserve force of three hundred and fifty million brothers gained by Islamic brotherhood within the sphere of Islamic Unity. Formerly, the Christian states did not support this Islamic Unity, but now, because Communism and Anarchism have appeared, both America and the European states are compelled to support the Qur'an and Unity of Islam." Emirdağ Addendum-2 (54)

Bediuzzaman uses the following succinct expression to explain that when the Unity of Islam is formed, the representative of it will unite with the pious spiritual Christians. It is as follows:

“The third duty of that person is to serve the religion of Islam through building the Islamic Khilâfah on Islamic Unity and uniting with the pious spiritual Christians. This duty may be fulfiled with a very great rule and power and millions of self-sacrificing people.” Sikke-i Tasdik-i Gaybi (9)

Muslim-Christian Alliance against the transgressive irreligiousness is one of the most important matters of our age. A meaningful Hadith related to it decrees:

سَتُصَالِحُونَ الرُّومَ صُلْحًا آمِنًا فَتَغْزُونَ أَنْتُمْ وَهُمْ عَدُوًّا مِنْ وَرَائِكُمْ فَتُنْصَرُونَ وَتَغْنَمُونَ وَتَسْلَمُونَ13

“In the future, you will make a secure peace with the Byzantines14 , then you and they will fight together against a common enemy, and you will be victorious, take plunder, and be safe.”

This Noble Hadith informs the Muslim-Christian alliance against the international irreligiousness and anarchy. The expression صُلْحًا آمِنًا15 implicitly informs about the anarchy that violates the general peace and security. Also, it is understood that due to the intense anarchy, a great need to restore public security will emerge. And the Hadith points to possessing the power that is needed to ensure security will be possible only through Muslim-Christian Alliance.

The following parts are the explanations of this Hadiths with the aspect which looks to our time:

“Now, the people of îmân should unite not only with their Muslim brothers but also with pious spiritual Christians, and it is a necessity to disregard the matters that raise the dispute, not contend over them. For kufr al-mutlaq attacks.” Emirdağ Addendum-1  (206)

According to a sahîh Hadith; in the âkhirzaman, as the true pious followers of Îsâ (as) will unite with the people of the Qur'an and withstand the common enemy of zandaqa; at this time too, the people of religion and the people of haqiqah need to unite sincerely not only with fellow believers, followers of the same way and brothers but also need to unite with the true pious spiritual Christians against their common enemy transgressing irreligious through temporarily not arguing and contending over the points that raise the dispute.” The Twentieth Flash-2nd Cause

In a warning that he wrote in 1946, Hazrat Bediuzzaman informs that America will support Islam against the negative part of Europe which becomes increasingly more aggressive to the Islamic world. It is as follows:

Just, an important anxiety and a consolation came to my heart that in consequence of these widespread struggles, a danger more harmful than that resulting from the World War, the Europe that is the source and maintainer of civilization will give birth to a Dajjalic savagery. The consolation for this anxiety is that through the full awakening of the Islamic world, and the New World accepting the True Religion of Christianity as the principles for their actions, and uniting with the Islamic world, and Injil uniting with and following the Qur’an, with a samâwî assistance they may withstand against those two awesome coming currents16 and Inshallah overcome.” Emirdağ Addendum-1 (58)

A Nobel âyah from the Qur’an (3:64) that decrees the fundamental principle of uniting with the people of the book (Ahl al-kitâb) :

قُلْ يَٓااَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ تَعَالَوْا اِلٰى كَلِمَةٍ سَوَٓاءٍ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمْ اَلاَّ نَعْبُدَ اِلاَّ اللّٰهَ وَلاَ نُشْرِكَ بِه۪ شَيْئًا وَلاَ يَتَّخِذَ بَعْضُنَا بَعْضًا اَرْبَابًا مِنْ دُونِ اللّٰهِۜ فَاِنْ تَوَلَّوْا فَقُولُوا اشْهَدُوا بِاَنَّا مُسْلِمُونَ

“Say: "O people of the Book (Ahl al-kitâb)! Let us get together on the terms of what is common between us and you. That is, we shall worship none but Allah; we shall not associate any partners with Him; that we shall not take from among ourselves any lords beside Allah." If they turned their faces from it, then tell them: "Bear witness that we are Muslims (peaceable)."

“Here, it is completely demonstrated that how different consciousnesses, different nations, different religions, different books may unite on a fundamental consciousness and a word of haqq; and how extensive, manifest, a mustaqîm way of hidâyah, a law of freedom that Islam taught to the world of mankind; and henceforth it is not restricted to the Arabs and the Persians.” (Hak Dini Kur’an Dili Tefsiri:1131)

The âyah (5:82) decrees the closeness and friendship of positive Christians to the Muslims as follows:

17 وَلَتَجِدَنَّ اَقْرَبَهُمْ مَوَدَّةً لِلَّذ۪ينَ اٰمَنُوا الَّذ۪ينَ قَالُٓوا اِنَّا نَصَارٰىۜ ذٰلِكَ بِاَنَّ مِنْهُمْ قِسّ۪يس۪ينَ وَرُهْبَانًا وَاَنَّهُمْ لاَ يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ

«...amongst all mankind, you will find the closest to the mu’mins regarding affection are those who say: “We are the Christians.”. Although generally, they are not believers, and they also have enmity toward believers, but when compared with others, the severeness of enmity towards others is more than theirs. That is, the possibility of affection of theirs is not completely non-existent, rather their affection is more anticipated and is a closer possibility. The love of the people of îmân and the capacity of îmân present in them is more than the others.

The reason for their closeness is this, amongst them,  there are present Qissîs, that is, priests and monks, those who are engaged in ‘ilm and ‘ibâdah, that is, those who abandon the world and perform ‘ibâdah in the monasteries to smash their nafs with the fear of the âkhirah. And, they are also not proud, but humble and familiar.” (Hak Dini Kur’an Dili Tefsiri: 1791)

“Because both Dajjals will win the assistance of a secret Jewish committee which nurtures a terrible desire for revenge on Islam and Christianity, and that of another horrendous committee which is under the veil of women's liberation, and because the Islamic Dajjal will deceive even the Masonic committees and win their support, they will be supposed to possess tremendous power.” The Fifth Ray-Three Brief Matters-The Third Aspect And Reason

Concerning to a student of Nur sending a book to the Christians, Hazrat Bediuzzaman says:

“Salâhaddin's letter is important in several aspects. The ‘Ulamâ of America, of course, will not be indifferent towards the risale of The Staff of Moses.  If it passes to the hands of those who love religion for religion's sake, it will make conquests. Otherwise, like our hojas with ananiyyah, due to vein of jealousy, it is doubtful that they will try to publish and gain acceptance of it.” Emirdağ Addendum-1 (160)

While the âyahs of the Qur’an like (2:121) (3:113,114,115,199) (13:36) (28:52-55) and similar other âyahs explain the attributes of the positive group amongst the people of the book (Ahl al-kitâb), many other âyahs explain that majority of them have deviated from the right path.

In the âyah (4:159) it is informed that the people of the book (Ahl al-kitâb) will believe to Hazrat ‘Îsâ (as) before their death.

وَاِنْ مِنْ اَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ اِلاَّ لَيُؤْمِنَنَّ بِه۪ قَبْلَ مَوْتِه۪ۚ وَيَوْمَ الْقِيٰمَةِ يَكُونُ عَلَيْهِمْ شَه۪يدًۚا18

While the âyah (4:90) is about the right to be protected for the non-Muslims those who are not transgressive:

اِلاَّ الَّذ۪ينَ يَصِلُونَ اِلٰى قَوْمٍ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُمْ م۪يثَاقٌ اَوْ جَٓاؤُ۫كُمْ حَصِرَتْ صُدُورُهُمْ اَنْ يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ اَوْ يُقَاتِلُوا قَوْمَهُمْۜ وَلَوْ شَٓاءَ اللّٰهُ لَسَلَّطَهُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ فَلَقَاتَلُوكُمْۚ فَاِنِ اعْتَزَلُوكُمْ فَلَمْ يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ وَاَلْقَوْا اِلَيْكُمُ السَّلَمَۙ فَمَا جَعَلَ اللّٰهُ لَكُمْ 19 عَلَيْهِمْ سَب۪يلاً

And the Hadith Ibn Majah 4090:

20 إِذَا وَقَعَتِ الْمَلاَحِمُ بَعَثَ اللَّهُ بَعْثًا مِنَ الْمَوَالِي هُمْ أَكْرَمُ الْعَرَبِ فَرَسًا وَأَجْوَدُهُ سِلاَحًا يُؤَيِّدُ اللَّهُ بِهِمُ الدِّينَ ‏

“When the fierce battles take place, Allah will send such a troop from mawâli who will be the best Arab horsemen and the best armed, with whom Allah will support His religion.”

The word مَوَالِي (mawâli) is the plural of مولى (mawlâ). It is well-known that Arabs refer to people who are not from them as mawâli. It also can be seen in history books. Thus, the community described in the hadith who will support and strengthen the Muslims may be a non-Arab nation.

It is understood from the indication of this hadith that one of the Christian states will help Muslims with its advanced military technology. (Allahu a’lam21 )

Hazrat Bediuzzaman mentions in 1911 in the sermon that he gave to a huge jamâ’ah in Damascus Umayyad Mosque and then published as a book, about the expressions of certain Europen thinkers and philosophers that confirm our topic. It is as follows:

“It is well-known that the most precise fadhîlah is that which even its enemies testify to its affirmation. Here, two examples out of hundreds:

The First: Mr Carlyle, most famous European philosopher of the 19th century and the continent of America proclaiming through his publications with his loudest voice to philosophers and Christian scholars, he wrote in his works the following:

“Islam born like an extremely brilliant flame, devoured the other religions like the branches of a dried tree. And, this devouring was the right of Islam. For the other religions- but those that are not confirmed in the Qur’an- are worth nothing. Mr Carlyle also said: “The words most worthy to listen to are first those of Muhammad (asm), for the true word is his. And he said too that “If you have doubt about the truths of Islam, you will have doubt about the self-evident and decisive incontestible matters. For the most self-evident and  incontestable truth is Islam.”

Thus, a famous philosopher wrote his testimony about Islam in various parts of his work.

Second Example: Prince Bismarck, one of Europe’s most famous philosophers in the last century said:

"I have studied all the revealed books. Since they are corrupted, I could not find the true hikmah that I was searching for the happiness of mankind. But I saw that the Qur'an of Muhammad (‘Alayhissalâtu Wassalâm) was far superior to all the other Books. I found hikmah in all its words. There is no other work that will serve the happiness of mankind like this. Such work cannot be the word of man. Those who say it is the word of Muhammad (‘Alayhissalâtu Wassalâm)  are denying the incontestable matters of knowledge. That is, it is self-evident that the Qur'an is the word of Allah."

Thus, due to relying on Europe and America’s fields of intelligence giving such a product like that of Carlyle and Bismarck exacting genius scholars, I too say with all my conviction:

Europe and America are pregnant with Islam. One day they will give birth to an Islamic state. Just as the Ottomans were pregnant with Europe and gave birth to a European state.

O my brothers who are here in the Umayyad Mosque and my brothers those who are in the mosque of the world of Islam half a century later!22 Are introductions from the beginning till now do not conclude, the true and ma’nawî ruler over the future continents and what will lead mankind to worldly happiness and the happiness in the âkhirah is only Islam and the  true religion of the followers of  ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm which will be transformed into Islam and will divest from superstition and corruption that will follow the Qur'an, and unite with Islam?” The Damascus Sermon (30)

There are âyahs in the Qur’an that mention explicitly the people of the book (Ahl al-kitâb) and that mention indicatively. For example (2:4)

" وَمَا اُنْزِلَ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ : Know, the purpose of descriptions like these is to arouse eagerness, and this implies injunctions: "Believe in such-and-such, and make no distinction." The phrase's positioning and its ties comprise four subtle points:

Firstly: The argument from what is adduced to the evidence. It is like this:

"O men! If you believe in the Qur'an, believe also in the previous scriptures, for the Qur'an confirms their veracity and testifies to them." This is indicated by مُصَدِّقًا لِمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ24

Secondly: The argument from the evidence to what is adduced, like this: O Ahl al-Kitâb! If you believe in the former Prophets and books, you should also believe in the Qur'an and Muhammad ‘Alayhissalâm, for they gave the good tidings of Muhammad ‘Alayhissalâm coming. Moreover, confirmation of them, and their revelation and evidences of the nubuwwah are found in haqiqah and in rûh more perfectly in the Qur'an and more clearly in Muhammad ‘Alayhissalâm. Thus, according to this excellent reasoning, the Qur'an is the Kalâm of Allâh and Muhammad ‘Alayhissalâtu Wassalâm is His Rasûl.

Thirdly: In this is a sign that the outcome of the Qur'an, that is, Islam, which emerged from it in the Era of Bliss, is like a tree whose origin is fastened in the depths of the past. Its spreading roots are fed from the water-sources of that time yielding life and strength. And with its trunk in the skies of the future, its spreading branches are laden with fruit. That is to say, Islam embraces the past and the future.

In this is a sign that it is urging Ahl al-Kitâb to îmân [in Islam], for it is making it appear familiar to them, and easy. It is as though [the Qur'an] is saying: 'O Ahl al-Kitâb! You should not experience any difficulty in entering this [new] way, for you are not casting away your outer shell altogether, but only completing your beliefs and building on the fundamentals you already possess.' For the Qur'an does not establish any new fundamentals or aqâid; it equalizes and perfects existent ones; and it combines in itself the virtues of all the previous books and the essentials of all the previous Sharî’ahs. It only establishes new ordinances in secondary matters, which are subject to change due to differences in time and place. For just as with the change of seasons, food and dress and many other things are changed; so too the stages of a person's life warrants change in the manner of their education and tarbiyyah. Similarly, as necessitated by hikmah and need, religious ordinances concerning secondary matters change in accordance with the stages of mankind's development. For very many of these are beneficial at one time yet harmful at another, and very many medicines were efficacious in mankind's infancy yet ceased being remedies in its youth. This is the reason the Qur'an abrogated some of its secondary pronouncements. That is, it decreed that their time had finished and that the turn had come for other decrees.” Signs of Miraculousness  ( 56-57 )

“This is the Qur'an's youth. It preserves its freshness and youth as though it is newly revealed in every age. Yes, since the Qur'an addresses at once all the levels of mankind in every age as a pre-eternal khutbah, it is a necessity to be found a perpetual youth in it. And that is how it has been seen and is seen. Even, it looks to each of the centuries, which are different concerning thoughts and dispositions, as though it is particular to that century, and gives the lesson. The works and laws of mankind grow like mankind, they change and are changed. But the rules and laws of the Qur'an are so firm and well-grounded that it shows more of its strength as the centuries pass. Indeed, this present age and the Ahl al-Kitâb of this age, who have the most self-reliance and close their ears to the words of the Qur'an, are so in need of its guiding address of, يَا اَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ يَا اَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ 25 that it is as though that address inclines favourably toward this age directly, and the phraseيَا اَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ 26 comprises also the meaning of يَا اَهْلَ الْمَكْتَبِ 27 It delivers its shout of,    يَا اَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ تَعَالَوْا اِلَى كَلِمَةٍ سَوَاءٍ بَيْنَنَا وَ بَيْنَكُمْ 28 to the ends of the ‘âlam with all its severity, all its freshness, all its youth.” The Twenty-Fifth Word-First Light -Third Ray-2nd Radiance

Thus, some of the thinkers of Europe, those who saw this truth have declared the veracity of the Qur’an:

“Bismarck, who was a well-known scholar, and the greatest of the nineteenth century in the aspect of the mind, and uttermost one of the social philosophers, says: “I have minutely examined the Qur’an from every aspect, and I have seen hikmah in all of its words. It does not have an equal and there is no other work that will administer mankind and there may not come.” And addressing the Prophet, he says:

“O, Muhammad! I am indeed sad that I am not your contemporary. Only once has mankind seen a distinguished power as yours, henceforth. I, therefore, bow in reverence in your presence.”


He put his signature to this. Since, in the part he wrote, he excessively diminished the distorted and abrogated revealed books, those sentences should not be written; I pointed this too.

His being the most brilliant and greatest philosopher of the nineteenth century and one of its most important figures in political and social life; the Islamic world being gained its independence to an extent; foreign governments’ in search for haqiqahs of the Qur’an; being present a great current in favour of the Qur’an in the west and north-west; and Mister Carlyle, America’s most eminent and famous philosopher, has said just like Bismarck “The other books cannot reach the Qur’an in any aspect. That is the true word, we should listen to it.” His being certainly decided; the Risale-i Nur being progressed and making conquests everywhere; these are all auspicious signs that many Bismarcks and Carlyles will appear in Europe and America.” Emirdağ Addendum-1 (268)

One of those terrible calamities is: The Risale-i Nur can perform the duty of being a barrier of Qur’an like the barrier of Dhu’l Qarnayn against the ma’nawî invasion of this country by the terrible current of irreligion, which has emerged from the North, breeds anarchy and has defeated Christianity.

And it was warned to my heart that it had become necessary to speak with the printed presses to eradicate the severe objection and accusations of the Islamic world against this blessed country’s people.”  Emirdağ Addendum-1 (102)

“It is for this mystery that from New Said’s special Ustadhs, Imam Rabbani, Gawth Al-A’zam, Imam Gazali, Zayn Al-‘Abidin (ra) -and especially from these two Imams that I received the lesson of the munâjât of Jaushan Al-Kabir- and Hazrat Husayn and Imam ‘Ali Karramallahu Wajhahu, since thirty years, especially in my constant ma’nawî connection with them especially through the Jaushan Al-Kabir, I received the lesson of former haqiqah and the outlook which we received from the Risale-i Nur. Let alone probe or look to the dhâlim’s cruelties, even thinking about them is not appropriate to our outlook. For they have received their penalty and the oppressed have received their reward far beyond our mind. To engage in those matters harms the duties pertaining to Qur’an with which we are now obliged in the face of the present calamity of religion. The principles of the Usul ad-dîn about the Islamic aqîdahs, which the ‘ulamâ of the ‘Ilm al-Kalâm and genius muhaqqiq ‘ulamâ of the ahl al-Sunnah wa’l-Jamâ’ah agreed on after their minute examination and rational arguments, and through weighing the âyâhs of Qur’an and Hadiths, command to preserve the outlook of Risale-i Nur, and strengthen it. Nowhere, not even ahl al-bid’ah may attack our outlook. Since the haqiqah of ikhlas is preserved, all kinds of people of Islam enter in it. Bigoted Shi’is, excessive Wahhabis, and the most materialist and scientistic of the philosophers even, and the most egoistical bigoted hojas are beginning to enter the sphere of Nur together, and some present in it in a brotherly fashion. There are signs that some missionaries and true pious spirituals of the religion of ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm even will enter that sphere. Not to attack each other, rather through feeling the need of co-operation and reconciliation, they do not put forward matters that lead to dispute. That is to say, the Risale-i Nur, which Imam ‘Ali (ra) reported at the degree of explicit with thirty-forty indications, is a complete remedy for the terrible wounds of this time. Therefore, its sphere has been sufficient for us and we do not go beyond it.” Emirdağ Addendum-1 (210)


If we display the perfections of the morality of Islam and the haqiqahs of îmân with our actions, followers of other religions will certainly enter Islam in communities, rather some of the continents and states on the globe of the earth even will seek refuge in Islam.

The Damascus Sermon (24)


سُبْحَانَكَ لاَ عِلْمَ لَنَا اِلاَّ مَا عَلَّمْتَنَا اِنَّكَ اَنْتَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ

اَللّٰهُمَّ صَلِّ وَ سَلِّمْ عَلَى شَمْسِ سَمَاءِ الرِّسَالَةِ وَ قَمَرِ بُرْجِ النُّبُوَّةِ وَ عَلَى آلِهِ وَ اَصْحَابِهِ نُجُومِ الْهِدَايَةِ وَ ارْحَمْنَا وَ ارْحَمِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ آمِينَ آمِينَ آمِينَ

هَدَينَا اللّٰهُ وَ اِيَّاكُمْ اِلَى الصِّرَاطِ الْمُسْتَقِيمِ




1 (Belonging to ma’nawî âlams. The body which has a visible form but not takes up space.)

2 (The matters which are not clarified decisively in the Qur’an and hadith. Contrary to the nass, muhkamât and dharûriyyah, they need to be interpreted. For example, the mutashabih hadith and âyahs.)

3 (Veracious informer)

4 (Belonging to ma’nawîâlams. The body which has a visible form but not takes up space.)

5 (The ‘Ilm is with Allah)

6 (Christianity)

7 (The cause of the glory of Rasûls)

8 (…from the fitnah of al-Masih ad-Dajjal... from the fitnah of al-Masih ad-Dajjal)

9 (Allah knows best)

10 (None knows the ghayb save Allah)

11 (Fatrah: The interregnum period between two Prophets. The message of true religion can not reach in an uncorrupted manner to the people who live in this period. Either for the reason of geographical isolation or as a consequence of the fitnah of that time. Not acting accordingly to the Sharî’ah of a Prophet is being dismissed of accountability in this period.)

12 (23rd. Flash)

13 (Sunan Abi Dawud 4292- Book 39, Hadith 2)

14 (Refers to the Christians)

15 (Secure peace)

16 (This letter written at 1945-46)

17 (..and nearest in affection to the believers are those who say: "We are Christians." That is because among them there are men that are priests and monks, who do not behave arrogantly)

18 (There is none of the People of the Book (Ahl al-kitâb) but will believe in this fact before his death; and on the qiyâmah  ‘Îsâ (as) will bear witness against them.)

19 (The exception to this is for those who take refuge with your allies or come over to you because their hearts restrain them both from fighting against you and from fighting against their own people. If Allah had wanted, He would have given them power over you and they might easily have fought against you; therefore, if they withdraw from you and cease their hostility and offer you peace, in that case, Allah has not granted you permission to fight against them.)

20 Sunan Ibn Majah 4090

21 (Only Allah knows the truth)

22 Damascus Sermon was given in 1910 and published. Then, in 1951 Hazrat Bediuzzaman with some arrangements published this edition of Damascus Sermon. Therefore, it can be said that the expression “half a century later” looks to both the years 1960 and 2000 and after 2000.

23 (And that which was revealed before you)

24 [a confirmation of what went before. (2:97)]

25 (Ya Ahl al-Kitâb! Ya Ahl al-Kitâb ‘O People of the Book! O People of the Book!’)

26 (Ya Ahl al-Kitâb! ‘O People of the Book!’)

27 (Ya Ahl al-Maktab ‘O People of the Modern Science!’)

28 (Ya Ahl al-Kitâb! O People of the Book! Come to common terms as between us and you)


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