LESSONS / Compilations

بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ وَ الصَّلاَةُ وَ السَّلاَمُ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ وَ عَلَى آلِهِ وَ صَحْبِهِ اَجْمَعِينَ


(For the literal meaning of ma’nâ al-harfî and ma’nâ al-ismî, please refer to the dictionary)


“The representative of the people of dhalâlah said that: "The world is execrated in your Hadiths and is called 'jîfah.'1 Also, all the people of walâyah and the people of haqiqah contempt the world, they say that it is abominable and foul. Whereas, you show it to be the means and proof of all Ilahî perfections and speak of with ‘ashq."

The Answer: The world has three faces.

Its First Face looks to Janâb-i Haqq's Names; it displays their embroideries. It performs the duty of being a mirror to them with ma’nâ al-harfî. This face of the world is the infinite letters of As-Samad. This face is extremely beautiful. It is worthy of ‘ashq, not loathing.

Its Second Face looks to the âkhirah. It is the arable field of the âkhirah and Jannah. It is the flower-bed of rahmah. This face is also as beautiful as the first and is deserving of love, not contempt.

Its Third Face: It is the face which looks to man's desires and is a veil of ghaflah and a playground for the desires of ahl ad-dunyâ. This face is ugly because it is transient, perishable, painful and it deceives. The contempt described in the Hadith and the loathing of the people of haqiqah are for this face.

Al-Qur'an Al-Hakîm’s speaking of the universe and all beings importantly and commendingly looks to the first two faces. The world desired by the Sahâbah and other Ahlullah2 is toward the first two faces.

Now, there are four classes of people who contempt the world.

The First: The people of ma’rifat, they contempt because it puts a barrier toward ma’rifat, love and ‘ibâdah of Janâb-i Haqq.

The Second: The people of âkhirah that they see the world ugly either because of its necessary matters preventing them from the works of the âkhirah, or, due to îmân in the degree of shuhûd, they see the world ugly in relation to the perfections and beauties of Jannah.

Indeed, in the same way, that a handsome man will appear ugly when compared to Hazrat Yûsuf ‘Alayhissalâm, however valuable the qualities of this world when compared to those of Jannah, they become as nothing.

The Third: They contempt the world because they cannot obtain. This contempt arises not from loathing but the love of it.

The Fourth: They contempt the world for they obtain it but it does not stay, it goes. And he gets angry. He contempt it in order to console himself and say it is foul. But this too arises from love of the world. Whereas, the accepted contempt is the one which arises from the love of the âkhirah and the love of Ma’rifatullah.

That is to say, the contempt that is accepted is of the first two kinds. May  Janâb-i Haqq make us like those people. Amen bi-hurmati Sayyidi’l Mursalîn.” The Thirty-Second Word-Second Stopping Place-Third Aim/The Fourth Sign


“Love this world and the creatures in it with ma’nâ al-harfî. Do not love them with ma’nâ al-ismî. Say, "How beautifully they have been made." Do not say, "How beautiful they are." Do not give any opportunity to other loves to enter into your inner heart because the inner heart is the mirror of As-Samad and pertains only to Him. Say, اَللّٰهُمَّ ارْزُقْنَا حُبَّكَ وَ حُبَّ مَا يُقَرِّبُنَا اِلَيْكَ3

Thus, if in this form, all the loves that we have recounted give a pleasure without pain, and also, in one respect, it is an unending union. Also, it increases the love of Allah. Also, It is a licit love. Also, it is a shukr which is pure pleasure, and a thought which is pure love.

For example, if a mighty sultân {once two tribal chiefs entered the presence of a sultân, they were in exactly the same situation as is described here} were to bestow an apple on you, there are two loves for that apple and two pleasures in it. The first of these is that the apple would be loved because it is an apple, and there would be a pleasure peculiar to and to the extent of the apple. This love does not concern the sultân. On the contrary, the man who puts the apple to his mouth and eats it in the sultân's presence loves the apple itself and his own nafs rather than the sultân. It sometimes happens that the sultân is not pleased with that love which nourishes the nafs; in fact, he detests it. Moreover, the pleasure that the apple gives is very limited and passes quickly. After the apple is eaten it is gone, only regret remains.

As for the second love, it is for the royal favour in the apple that is demonstrated by means of the apple. One who holds the apple precious as if it were the sample and embodiment of a royal favour shows that he loves his sultân. Moreover, the pleasure in that fruit, which is a sort of container for the favour, is such that it is far greater than the pleasure obtained from a thousand apples. This pleasure, then, is the essence of shukr. This love is a respectful love for the sultân.

In exactly the same way, if all ni’mahs and fruits are loved for themselves if, by ghaflah, they are delighted in only for the material pleasures that they yield, that love is merely the love of nafs. Also, those pleasures are transient and bring pain. But, if they are loved as favours proceeding from Janâb-i Haqq's rahmah and as fruits of His munificence, and if pleasure is obtained from them with perfect appetite by appreciating the degree of kindness in that munificence and favour, then it has both the ma’nawî shukr and is a pleasure without pain.” The Thirty-Second Word- Third Stopping Place- The 2nd Point of the  2nd Topic- An Important Question-2nd Subtle Point


بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

وَمَنْ يُؤْتَ الْحِكْمَةَ فَقَدْ اُوتِىَ خَيْرًا كَثِيرًا4

[This Word consists of a brief comparison between the sacred hikmah of Al-Qur'an Al-Hakîm and the hikmah of philosophy, and a concise summary of the instruction of tarbiyyah which Qur'anic hikmah gives to man in his personal life and social life, and an indication of the Qur'an's superiority to other Ilahî words, and to all speech. There are Four Principles in this Word.]


Look through the telescope of the following story which is in the form of a comparison, and see the difference between Qur'anic hikmah and the hikmah of science:

One time, a renowned Ruler who was both religious and a fine craftsman wanted to write Al-Qur’an Al-Hakîm in a script worthy of the sacredness in its meaning and the miraculousness in its words, so that its marvel-displaying stature would be arrayed in wondrous apparel. Thus that Embroiderer, therefore, wrote the Qur'an in a truly wonderful fashion. He used all his precious jewels in its writing. In order to indicate the great variety of its haqiqahs, he wrote some of its embodied letters in diamond and emerald, and some in pearl and agate, and other sorts in brilliant and coral, while others he inscribed with silver and gold. He adorned and embroidered it in such a way that everyone, those who knew how to read and those who did not, was full of admiration and astonishment when they beheld it. Especially in the view of the people of haqiqah, since the outer beauty was an indication of the brilliant beauty and striking adornment in its meaning, it became a truly precious antique. Then the Ruler showed the artistically made and bejewelled Qur'an to a foreign philosopher and to a Muslim ‘âlim. In order to test them and for reward, he commanded them: "Each of you write a work about the hikmah of this!" First the philosopher, then the ‘âlim composed a book about it. However, the philosopher's book discussed only the embroideries of the letters and their relationships and conditions, and the properties of the jewels, and described them. It did not touch on their meaning at all, for the foreign man had no knowledge of the Arabic script. He did not even know that the embellished Qur'an was a book, a written piece, expressing a meaning. He rather looked on it as an embroidered antique. He did not know any Arabic, but he was a very good engineer, and he described things very aptly, and he was a skilful chemist, and an ingenious jeweller. So this man wrote his work according to those crafts.

As for the Muslim ‘âlim, when he looked at it, he understood that it was Al-Kitâb Al-Mubîn, Al-Qur’an Al-Hakîm. This haqq-loving person neither attached importance to the external adornments nor busied himself with the embroidered letters. He became preoccupied with something that was a million times higher, more elevated, more subtle, more noble, more beneficial, and more comprehensive than the matters with which the other man had busied himself. For discussing the sacred haqiqahs and nûrs of the mysteries beneath the veil of the embroideries, he wrote a beautiful noble tafsir. Then the two of them took their works and presented them to the Illustrious Ruler. That Ruler first took the philosopher's work. He looked at it and saw that the self-centred one who performs ‘ibâdah to nature had worked very hard, but had written nothing of true hikmah. He had understood nothing of its meaning. Indeed, he had confused it and been disrespectful towards it, ill-mannered even. For supposing that Qur’an which is the source of haqiqah, to be a meaningless embroidery, he had insulted it as being valueless in regard to meaning. So the Ruler who has hikmah hit him over the head with his work and expelled him from his presence.

Then he looked at the work of the other, the haqq-loving ‘âlim who investigates minutely, and saw that it was an extremely fine and beneficial tafsir, a book composed with utmost hikmah in a manner of a murshid. "Congratulations! Bârakâllah!", he said. Thus, hikmah is this and they call those who possess it ‘âlim and hakîm. As for the other man, he was a craftsman who had exceeded his mark. Then in reward for the ‘âlim's work, he commanded that in return for each letter ten gold pieces should be given to him from his inexhaustible treasury.

If you have understood the comparison, now look and see the face of haqiqah:

The ornamented Qur'an is this artistically fashioned universe, and the Ruler is the Pre-Eternal Hakîm. Those two men, one is the foreigner who represents ‘ilm of philosophy and its philosophers, and the other, the Qur'an and its students.

Yes, Al-Qur'an Al-Hakîm is a most elevated mufassir and a most eloquent translator of the Mighty Qur'an of the Universe. Yes, it is the Furqân which instructs man and the jinn concerning the takwînî âyahs inscribed by the pen of Qoudrah on the pages of the universe and on the leaves of time. It regards beings, each of which is a meaningful letter through the point of view of ma’nâ al-harfî, that is, it looks at them on account of their Sâni’. It says, "How beautifully they have been made! How exquisitely they point to their Sâni’s beauty (jamâl)!", thus showing the universe's true beauty. But the philosophy which they call ‘ilm of hikmah has plunged into the decorations of the letters of beings and into their relationships, and has become bewildered; it has confused the way of haqiqah. While the letters of this mighty book should be looked through ma’nâ al-harfî, that is, on account of Allah, it does not do this; it looks at beings through ma’nâ al-ismî. That is, it looks at beings on account of beings, and discusses them in that way. Instead of saying, "How beautifully they have been made," it says "How beautiful they are," and makes them ugly. In doing this it insults the universe and made it complain about it. Indeed, philosophy without religion is a sophistry without haqiqah and an insult to the universe.” The Twelfth Word



بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

اِنَّا عَرَضْنَا اْلاَمَانَةَ عَلَى السَّمٰوَاتِ وَاْلاَرْضِ وَالْجِبَالِ فَاَبَيْنَ اَنْ يَحْمِلْنَهَا وَاَشْفَقْنَ مِنْهَا وَحَمَلَهَا اْلاِنْسَانُ

 اِنَّهُ كَانَ ظَلُومًا جَهُولاً5

We shall indicate a single jewel from the great treasure of this âyah. It is as follows:

The ‘ana’ is one individual, one aspect of the numerous aspects of the Trust (Amanah), which the sky, earth and mountains were hesitant and feared its undertaking. Yes, from the time of Âdam until now, the ‘ana’ is the seed of a terrifying tree of zaqqûm6 and a luminous tree of tûbâ, which branch out around the ‘âlam of mankind. Before attending to this great haqiqah, we declare an introduction which will facilitate the understanding of it.  It is as follows:

Just as the ana is the key to the Names of Allah, which are hidden treasures, so too, as a key to the sealed enigma of the universe, it is the solver of the riddle, it is an enigma which causes amazement. Through its essence being known, the ana, which is a strange riddle, a bizarre enigma, is opened, and it opens the enigma of the universe and the treasures of al-‘âlam al-wujûb as well. Concerning this matter, we discussed in my Arabic Risale titled “Shammah” as follows:

The key of the ‘âlam is in the hand of man and is attached to his nafs. While they are seen outwardly open, the doors of the universe are in fact closed. As a Trust (Amanah), Janâb-i Haqq has given to man such a key called ana that it opens all the doors of the ‘âlam, and He has given him such an enigmatic ananiyyah that he discovers the hidden treasures of Al-Khallâq of the universe with it. But the ana itself is also an extremely abstruse riddle and an enigma that is difficult to open. If its true essence and the mystery of its creation are known, as it is itself opened, will be the universe as well. It is as follows:

As a trust, As-Sâni’ Who is Hakîm has given to the hand of man an ana which contains indications and samples that show and cause to be known the attributes of His Rubûbiyyah and the haqiqahs of His shuûnah. So that, by the ana’s being a unit of measurement, may the attributes of rubûbiyyah and shuûnah of ulûhiyyah be known. But the unit of measurement’s having an actual existence is not necessary. Rather, like hypothetical lines in geometry, a unit of measurement can be formed by hypothesis and assumption. The actual existence of it through proof and knowledge is not necessary.

Question: Why is the knowledge (ma’rifat) of the attributes and Names of Janâb-i Haqq tied to the ‘Ananiyyah’?

The Answer: Because, since an absolute and all-encompassing thing has no limits or end, a shape is not given to it, and an opinion is not formed to give a form onto it and to distinguish it, what its essence is, is not understood. For example, a constant light without darkness is not known or perceived. When a limit is drawn with real or imaginary darkness, then it is known. Thus, since Janâb-i Haqq's attributes and Names like ‘ilm and qoudrah, Hakîm and Rahîm are all-encompassing, limitless and without sharik, an opinion about them is not formed, and what they are is not known and nor perceived. In that case, since they do not have actual limits or ends, it is necessary to draw a hypothetical and imaginary limit. The ananiyyah does this. It forms the idea of an imaginary rubûbiyyah, ownership, qoudrah and ‘ilm within itself, it draws a limit. Through this, it places an imaginary limit on the all-encompassing attributes. By saying, "Up to here, it is mine, from here, it is His", makes a division. With the tiny measurements in itself, it slowly understands their essence. For example, with its imagined rubûbiyyah over his sphere of possession, it understands the rubûbiyyah of its Khâliq in the sphere of contingency, and with its apparent ownership, it understands the true ownership of its Khâliq and says "Like I own this house, Al-Khâliq is the possessor of the universe as well", and with its partial ‘ilm, it understands His ‘ilm, and with its minor art of his kasb, it understands As-Sâni’ Zuljalâl’s producing arts as a new creation out of nothing. For example, it says: "Just as I made this house and arranged it, so too someone has made this house of the world and arranged it", and so on. Thousands of mysterious states, attributes and senses, which make known and show to a degree all the attributes and shuûnah of Allah, are contained within the ana. That is to say, the ana is a conscious string from the thick thread of the being of mankind, a fine thread from the garment of the essence of humanity, it is an Alif from the book of the personality of mankind which has no meaning in itself but shows the meaning of others like a mirror, and a unit of measurement, and a tool for discovery and ma’nâ al-harfî; this Alif has two faces. One looks to khayr and existence. With this face it only receives faydh. It accepts the One Who gives, itself cannot create. In this face, it is not the agent, its hand is too short to create. Its other face looks to sharr and goes to non-existence. In that face, it is the agent, it possesses the act. Also, its essence is harfî; it shows the other’s meaning. Its rubûbiyyah is imaginary. Its existence is so weak and fine that in itself it cannot undertake or bear anything. Rather, it is a measure like the sort of measure of the thermometer or barometer that makes known the degree and amount of things; it is a measure that makes known the absolute, all-encompassing and limitless attributes of Al-Wâjib Al-Wujûd.

Thus, one who knows his essence in this way, and accepts it by heart with a feeling of great need (idh'ân) and acts according to it, is included in the good news of, قَدْ اَفْلَحَ مَنْ زَكَّيهَا7 . He truly delivers the Trust (Amanah), and through the telescope of the ana, he sees what the universe is and what duties it performs, and when information regarding the universe comes to the nafs, it finds a confirmer within the ana. That knowledge (‘ilm) remains as nûr and hikmah. It does not transform into darkness and futility. When the ana fulfils its duty in this way, it abandons its imaginary rubûbiyyah and hypothetical ownership, which are the units of measurement. It says 8 لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَ لَهُ الْحَمْدُ وَ لَهُ الْحُكْمُ وَ اِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ It assumes its true ‘ubûdiyyah, rises to the rank of ‘Ahsan Taqwîm’.

If through forgetting the hikmah of its creation and abandoning the duty of its fitrah, the ana looks to itself with ma’nâ al-ismî, if it believes that it is the owner, then it betrays the Trust (Amanah). It will be included under وَ قَدْ خَابَ مَنْ دَسَّيهَا9 . Thus, because of this aspect of the ananiyyah, which begets all shirk, sharr and dhalâlah, the samâwât, earth and mountains were terrified; they were afraid of hypothetical shirk. Yes, while ana is a fine Alif, a string, a hypothetical line, if the essence of it is not known, it will grow and develop under the soil of concealment and gradually thicken. It spreads all parts of the being of human. Like a huge dragon, it swallows the being of human. That person entirely, with all his subtle faculties, becomes merely the ana. Then the ananiyyah of the human race, too, gives strength to the ananiyyah in terms of racial and national fanaticism, like shaytan, the ana contests the commands of As-Sâni’ Zuljalâl by relying on that ananiyyah of the human race. Then, through using its nafs as a measurement, it compares everyone, everything even, with itself and divides the possession of Janâb-i Haqq to them and causes. It falls into extremely great shirk, displays the meaning of اِنَّ الشِّرْكَ لَظُلْمٌ عَظِيمٌ10 . Yes, just like a man, who has stolen forty cents from the public property, can only take possession of it by accepting all his friends, who are present, being taken a cent. In the same way, the man who says: "I own myself" is compelled to believe and say: "Everything owns itself".

Thus, while in this treacherous state of its, the ana is in absolute ignorance. Even if it knows thousands of sciences, it is the most ignorant with compounded ignorance11 . For when its senses and thoughts bring the nûrs of knowledge (ma’rifat) of the universe, they extinguish, since they do not find any material within its nafs with which to confirm, illuminate and perpetuate them. Everything that comes is dyed with the colours within its nafs. If the pure hikmah comes, within its nafs, it will take the form of absolute futility. For the colour of ana in this state are shirk and atheism. It is the denial of Allah. If the whole universe is full of shining âyahs, a dark point in that ana extinguishes them in the view, does not show…” The Thirtieth Word-First Aim


“Islam says: لاَ خَالِقَ اِلاَّ هُوَ 12 , and does not accept causes and intermediaries as the real producer of an effect. It looks to intermediaries with ma’nâ al-harfî. Aqîdah of Tawhîd and the duty of submission (taslîm) and tafvîdh13 demand this. Due to corruption, present-day Christianity considers causes and intermediaries as the producers of an effect and looks to them with the view of ma’nâ al-ismî. The aqîdah of waladiyyah14 and the thought of priesthood demand this and urge it. They look to their saints through the view of ma’nâ al-ismî, as the source of faydh and the mine of nûr, according to one view, like a nûr of a lamp which transformed from the sunlight. Whereas, we look to the awliyâ through ma’nâ al-harfî, as a place of reflection and manifestation that is, like a mirror to the sun which spreads its light. {The Naqshbandis' method (râbita) is based on this mystery.} It is because of this mystery, with us, ma’nawî journeying begins from humility, it passes through self-annihilation, and reaches the station of annihilation in Allah (fanâ fillâh). It begins to journey through infinite ranks. The ana and nafs al-ammarah extinguish with their arrogance and pride. However, not true Christianity, but in the Christian who has been shaken by philosophy and corruption, the ana strengthens with its equipment. If a prominent person of high rank and station with a powerful ana is a Christian, he can be firm in his religion, whereas a Muslim becomes neglectful in his religion.” The Damascus Sermon (137)


“Your second question about the discussion of ma’nâ al-ismî and ma’nâ al-harfî is explained in the majority of the books of ‘ilm al-nahw’s15 beginnings and also there are sufficient statements with comparisons in the risales on ‘ilm of haqiqah which are called The Words and The Letters. Further explanations to a person, who is intelligent and investigates minutely like you, are surplus. When you look to a mirror if you look at it to see the glass you may see the glass deliberately. Inside the mirror, Re’fet may be secondary and your view may slightly catch indirectly. If you look to the mirror intending to see your blessed face, you may see the loveable Re’fet purposely. You would say,  فَتَبَارَكَ اللّٰهُ اَحْسَنُ الْخَالِقِينَ . Your view indirectly and secondarily may slightly catch the glass of the mirror. In the first example, the glass of the mirror is ma’nâ al-ismî. Re’fet becomes ma’nâ al-harfî. In the second example the glass of the mirror is ma’nâ al-harfî, that is, it is not to be looked at for itself, it is to be looked at for another meaning, which is the reflection. The reflection is ma’nâ al-ismî. That is, in an aspect it is included in the description of the ismî16 دَلَّ عَلَى مَعْنًى فِى نَفْسِهِ17 . And the mirror confirms the description of the harfî18 دَلَّ عَلَى مَعْنًى فِى غَيْرِهِ19 With the point of view of the Qur’an all the creatures of the universe are letters, they express others’ meanings withma’nâ al-harfî. That is, they cause to be known His Names and attributes. The philosophy that is lack of rûh mostly looks with ma’nâ al-ismî, stuck in the swamp of nature.” Barla Lahikası-348


Like Intention, Point of View Transforms Habitual Actions Into ‘Ibâdah

Note this point! Just as through intention, permissible habitual actions may become ‘ibâdah, so according to the point of view, the sciences that pertain/pertaining existences may become Ma’rifatullah.

If you study and tafakkur, that is, if you look from the point of view of harfî and in respect to art: "How beautifully As-Sâni’ made these, how well He did it!" instead of: "How beautiful it is;"

If you look from this point of view at the universe, the embroideries of the Pre-Eternal Naqqâsh, His order and hikmah, and flashes of purpose and the solidness will illuminate your doubts.

The sciences of the universe will become Ma’rifatullah. But if you look at things through ma’nâ al-ismî, saying: "How does it exist by itself alone,"

If you look thus at the universe, whatever the extent of your scientific knowledge, it will be ignorance. Those unfortunate haqiqahs become worthless in worthless hands. The witnesses to this are many.” The Words ( 757 )


The sciences may be the means of shirk due to the point of view of ma’nâ al-ismî.

“KNOW, O FRIEND, Hamd to Allah that He makes it possible to solve the greatest problems of the universe by one rule of ‘ilm al-nahw20 : “ma’nâ al-harfî and ma’nâ al-ismî.” This universe is a book; the creatures in it are its words. These words indicate other’s meanings, they are Rabbânî letters that manifest Al-Asmâ Al-Husnâ. They do not indicate their own nafs’ meanings. Considering creatures on behalf of their nafs causes compounded ignorance, kufr and ornamented philosophy while considering them on behalf of their Inscriber is the origin of ‘ilm, îmân and hikmah.” Al-Mathnawi al-Nuri


“Know, O friend, that during the 40 years of my life and my 30 years of study, I have learned four words and four sentences.

The phrases are ma’nâ al-harfî; ma’nâ al-ismî; intention (niyyah); and viewpoint (nadhar). In other words, everything except Taâ’lâ (that is the universe) should be considered on account of Allah from the point of view of ma’nâ al-harfî. Considering the universe in terms of ma’nâ al-ismî, that is on account of causes is wrong. Everything has two aspects, one points to Al-Haqq, the other points to creation (kawn). Any created being should be considered with respect to its first aspect, that of ma’nâ al-harfî, and also should be a title to the ma’nâ al-ismî which has a point of view of relation to Taâ’lâ. For example, any ni’mah should be related to the act of bestowing ni’mahs. The related means and causes should be seen as “mirrors” reflecting the management or disposal of Qoudrah.

Similarly, intention and viewpoint transform the essence of things and, as an elixir turns soil into gold, changes evil acts into good ones. Intention transforms our everyday, ordinary acts into ‘ibâdah. And viewpoint transforms sciences to ma’rifat of Allah. If the viewpoint of them is on account of causes and means, they are the means of ignorance; if the viewpoint of them is on account  of Allah, they will be ma’rifat of Allah.” Al-Mathnawi Al-Nuri


“This ‘âlam, when considered on account of As-Subhân from the viewpoint of ma’nâ al-harfî as taught by the Qur’an, becomes infinitely valuable. If considered on behalf of causes, from the viewpoint of ma’nâ al-ismî as taught by hikmah of philosophy, its value is reduced to its changing and lifeless material substance. The ‘ilm of the universe derived from the Qur’an is infinitely superior to that taught by modern science of philosophy. For example, the Qur’an says وَجَعَلَ الشَّمْسَ سِرَاجًا21 . What a broad, profound view the Qur’an gives you to look at the series of the Names’ manifestations. That is:

“O humankind! Despite its huge size, the sun is subjugated to you as a nûr to illuminate your home, a fire to ripen or cook your food, by the command of Him Who gives your rizq. You have such a Mâlik Who is Rahîm and an ‘Adhîm Who is Qadîr, that the sun and innumerable others like it are lamps in His guest-house.

Hikmah of philosophy tells you that the sun is a huge mass of fire moving by itself. Our Earth and other planets were detached from it and move in their orbits determined by their attraction to the sun and gravity. Does the information that is given by philosophy give you any attaintments other than a deaf fright, terrifying greatness and blind hikmah.” Al-Mathnawi Al-Nuri


If it is said: The Qur’an does not discuss the universe as philosophy and hikmah of science do.

The Answer: For philosophy deviated from the way of haqiqah. And it employs the creation on account of their own sakes, through looking to the universe by the terms of ma’nâ al-ismî. But the Qur’an is haqq, which was revealed from Al-Haqq and goes to haqiqah, employs the creation on account of their Khâliq not for themselves through looking to them by the terms of ma’nâ al-harfî.” Al-Mathnawi Al-Nuri


“KNOW, O FRIEND, that a mu’min sees the creatures of art with ma’nâ al-harfî. He looks at them with a meaning pointing outside of itself. But a kâfir considers it with ma’nâ al-ismî with the meaning pointing to itself.

Every creature with art has two aspects: one looks to itself and its attributes, and the other looks to its Sâni’ and its Fâtir’s Names which are manifested on it. The second aspect has the most extensive power and most perfect meaning. Each letter of a book points to itself only as a letter, while in the book it points to and describes its scribe in many ways. In the same way, every creature with art, which is a letter from the book of Qoudrah, points to itself and its apparent existence to the extent of its size, while pointing to its Eternal Naqqâsh in many respects, and recites the Names manifested on it with long praising poetry.” Al-Mathnawi Al-Nuri


“Does the âyah,كُلُّ شَيْءٍ هَالِكٌ اِلاَّ وَجْهَهُ22 include the âkhirah, Jannah and Jahannam, and their inhabitants, or does it not include them?

The Answer: This matter has been much discussed by many of ahl al-tahqîq, ahl al-kashf and ahl al-walâyah. The word is theirs in this matter. Moreover, this âyah has great vastness and contains many levels. The majority of ahl al-tahqîq said that it does not include al-‘âlam al-baqâ, while others said that those realms too will perish for just an instant, a brief interval of time, but so brief a time that it will not be perceived that they have been annihilated and returned. But the absolute annihilation stated by some of ahl al-kashf whose ideas fall into ifrât is not haqiqah. For since the Most Pure and Holy Ilahî Essence (Zhât Al-Aqdas) is eternal and everlasting, His attributes and Names are also surely eternal and everlasting. And since His attributes and Names are everlasting and eternal, the eternal beings and the people of eternity in al-‘âlam al-baqâ which are the mirrors, manifestations, embroideries and places of reflection of His attributes and Names necessarily can not go to absolute non-existence.

I shall now write two points that occur to my thought from the faydh of Al-Qur'an Al-Hakîm:

The First: Janâb-i Haqq is such an Absolute Qadîr that He can despatch and bring into being existence and non-existence most easily, as though they were two houses in relation to His qoudrah and irâdah. If He wishes He can do this in a day or in an instant. Anyway, there is no absolute non-existence, for His ‘ilm is all-embracing. And there is nothing outside the sphere of Ilahî ‘ilm so that something can be cast there. The non-existence within the sphere of ‘Ilm is external non-existence and a title that became a veil for the existence of ‘Ilm. Some ahl al-tahqîq have called these beings existent in ‘Ilm "A’yân Thâbitah."23 In which case, to go to extinction is to be temporarily divested of external dress and to enter upon ma’nawî existence and existence in ‘Ilm. That is to say, beings which are transitory and perish leave external existence and their essences are clothed in a ma’nawî existence; they pass from the sphere of Qoudrah to the sphere of ‘Ilm.

The second: As we have explained in many of the Words, in regard to the ma’nâ al-ismî and their faces which look to themselves, all things are nothing. They do not possess existences which are of themselves independent or constant. And they do not possess haqiqahs which subsist of themselves. But in regard to their aspects that look to Janâb-i Haqq, that is if it is with ma’nâ al-harfî, they are not nothing. For in that aspect are to be seen the manifestations of eternal Names. That aspect is not doomed for non-existence, for it bears the shadow of an eternal existent. It has a haqiqah, it is constant, and it is elevated. For it is a sort of constant shadow of an eternal Name which manifests on it.

Furthermore, كُلُّ شَيْءٍ هَالِكٌ اِلاَّ وَجْهَهُ24 is a sword to cut man's attachment to mâsiwâ25 that its sentence looks to the transitory things of this world in order to sever attachments to those transitory things in this transitory world, which are not on account of Janâb-i Haqq. That means if it is for Allah's sake, with ma’nâ al-harfî and for Allah, can not be included mâsiwâ26 that its head may be cut off with the sword of كُلُّ شَيْءٍ هَالِكٌ اِلاَّ وَجْهَهُ27 .

In Short: If it is for Allah, if he finds Allah, it cannot remain other than Him so that its head should be severed. If he does not find Allah and does not look on his account, everything is other than Him. The sword of  كُلُّ شَيْءٍ هَالِكٌ اِلاَّ وَجْهَهُ28 has to be used, the veil has to be rend so that He could be found.....

اَلْبَاقِى هُوَ الْبَاقِى

Said Nursî

The Letters (  81-82 )



1 (Carrion)

2 (Those who gain the love of Allah- awliyâ)

3 (O Allah, grant us love for You, and love for that which will draw us closer to You.)

4 (And he who has been given hikmah has been given great khayr.)

5 (We offered the Trust (Amanah) to the samâwât, and the earth, and the mountains; but they refused to undertake it and were afraid, but man undertook it, he is indeed most unjust (dhâlim), most ignorant.)

6 (A certain tree of Jahannam mentioned in the Qur'an. The food for the people of Jahannam. Any noxious or very unpleasant food. The oleander)

7 [Indeed successful will be the one who keeps it pure (tazkiyyah)]

8 (His is the possession and to Him is all hamd and His is the judgement and to Him you all shall return.)

9 (And indeed failure will be the one who corrupts it!)

10 (Shirk is verily a great dhulm.)

11 compounded ignorance - jahâlatin murakkabbah: “…such people fancy themselves. And they do not know, but they suppose that they do know….” The Letters ( 40 )

“their ignorance is compounded because they are unaware of it. It is therefore useless to offer them advice; they should be shunned entirely. For it is only those who realize that they are ignorant that may benefit from advice.” Signs of Miraculousness ( 109 )

12 (There is no Khâliq but Allah)

13 Tafvîdh: Handing over the matters to Allah.

“Tawakkul in planning the preliminaries is laziness. But tafvîdh in the rising of the consequences is the tawakkul taught by the Sharî'ah.” The Words ( 759 )

14 (Belief in ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm as the son of Allah)

15 (The science of grammar, syntax and linguistics)

16 (belonging to the name)

17 (points to the meaning of itself)

18 (belonging to the letter)

19 (points to the meaning of another)

20 (The science of grammar, syntax and linguistics)

21 (He has made the sun as a lamp, 71:16)

22 (Everything will perish save His countenance)

23 (constant manifestations)

24 (Everything will perish save His countenance)

25 (All else besides Allah... the world, the flesh, the vanities of life. Everything other than Allah)

26 (All else besides Allah... the world, the flesh, the vanities of life. Everything other than Allah)

27 (Everything will perish save His countenance)

28 (Everything will perish save His countenance)

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