LESSONS / Compilations

بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ وَ الصَّلاَةُ وَ السَّلاَمُ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ وَ عَلَى آلِهِ وَ صَحْبِهِ اَجْمَعِينَ

RIZQ-SUSTENANCE

“...the feeling of anxiety for the future is present in everyone. When a person experiences intense anxiousness, he sees that he possesses nothing to guarantee to reach the future which he is anxious about. Also, a future which is brief and undertaken in respect of rizq is not worth such intense anxiety. So he turns his face away from it, towards a future which is beyond the grave, haqîqî, long-lasting and for the ghâfil it has not been undertaken.The Ninth Letter

 

The Fourth haqiqah which is the Thirty-Third degree:

The Haqiqah of Rahîmiyyah and Razzâqiyyah

That is, the haqiqah of giving rizq, which is material and ma’nawî and pertains to the stomach, of all animate beings, especially those who possess rûh, especially the impotent, the weak and the young, over the whole face of the earth, in it and in its air and in its seas, compassionately, which is made from dry and simple soil, from solid, bone-like dry pieces of wood, and especially the most delicate form of rizq that appears between blood and urine, and thousands of kilos of foods which are made from a single seed like a bone, on time, in an orderly form, neither forgetting nor confusing any of them, in front of our eyes by a ghayb hand.

Yes, as the âyah اِنَّ اللّهَ هُوَ الرَّزَّاقُ ذُو الْقُوَّةِ الْمَتِينُ 1   especially appropriates and confines the sustenance and provision to Janâb-i Haqq, and the âyah وَمَا مِنْ دَابَّةٍ فِى اْلاَرْضِ اِلاَّ عَلَى اللّٰهِ رِزْقُهَا وَيَعْلَمُ مُسْتَقَرَّهَا وَمُسْتَوْدَعَهَا كُلٌّ فِى كِتَابٍ مُبِينٍ 2 undertakes the rizq of every men and animal and includes it under the Rabbânî guarantee; and through observably giving sustenance by guaranteed action to the weak, impotent, powerless and unfortunate creatures those unable to provide rizq, from unexpected places, indeed from the ghayb or even out of nothing, for example to the insects in the ocean bed from nothing, and to the all young from unexpected places, and to all animals every spring, in fact, merely from the ghayb, the âyah وَكَاَيِّنْ مِنْ دَابَّةٍ لاَ تَحْمِلُ رِزْقَهَا اَللّٰهُ يَرْزُقُهَا وَاِيَّاكُمْ وَ هُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ3   proves and proclaims even to the people who perform ‘ibâdah to causes that, it is He Who gives under the veil of causes. So many âyahs of the Qur'an and infinite pieces of the evidence of creation unanimously demonstrate that each animate being is sustained by the Rahîmiyyah of the single Razzâq Zuljalâl.

Since they are powerless and have no will, and while they remain in their place through tawakkul, a sort of rizq of the trees, which they requested, running to them and the flowing of sustenance for infant to their mouths from wondrous small pumps and its ceasing due to the bestowing of a little power and will to the infant; the giving to the especially human infant the compassion of their mothers as a helper clearly prove that halal rizq is not mutually proportional to will and power, rather, it comes in relation to weakness and impotence, which result in tawakkul.

As the power, will and sharpness of intelligence, which incite greed that is mostly the cause of lost, drive certain great learned men to a sort of beggary; the weakness of the unintelligent, crude and common man in a manner of tawakkul making them reach richness; and كَمْ عَالِمٍ عَالِمٍ اَعْيَتْ مَذَاهِبُهُ وَ جَاهِلٍ جَاهِلٍ تَلْقَاهُ مَرْزُوقًا 4 becoming a proverb, establish that halal rizq is not won and not made found by one’s power and will, but rather is given by a mercy that finds one’s working and striving acceptable and is bestowed from a compassion that pities one’s need. But, rizq is of two kinds:

The First is haqîqî and fitrî rizq for life and living which is under the guarantee of Ar-Rabb. It is indeed so arranged that this fitrî rizq, is stored in the body in the form of fat and remainder and ensures life for at least twenty days without eating anything. That is to say, those who apparently die of hunger before the twenty-thirty days and before concluding the fitrî rizq stored up in their body, die not from a lack of rizq, but a disease arising from a bad habit and the abandonment of custom.

The Second sort of rizq: The metaphorical and artificial rizq, which becomes dharûrah due to addiction through habit, wastefulness and misuse. This sort is not under the guarantee of Ar-Rabb, but dependant on His bestowal. Sometimes He gives, sometimes He does not give.

With respect to this second rizq, happy is he who knows that halal endeavour with frugality and contentment, which are the source of happiness and pleasure, is a sort of ‘ibâdah and a du'â by action for rizq and he accepts the bestowal gratefully and thankfully, and happily passes his life.

Wretched is he who abandons halal endeavour through prodigality and greed, which are the source of wretchedness, loss and sorrow, knocks on every door, passes his life lazily, oppressively and in a manner of complaining, and indeed he kills it.

Just as the stomach demands rizq, so too the subtle faculties and feelings of man like heart, rûh, mind (aql), eye, ear and mouth, also demand their rizq from Ar-Razzâq Who is Rahîm and gratefully receive it. The rizq of those, which are appropriated to them and make them glad and pleased, are bestowed from the treasury of rahmah to each separately. Indeed, Ar-Razzâq Who is Rahîm, in order to give to those a more extensive rizq, has created each of those subtle faculties like the eye and ear, heart, imagination and mind as a key to His treasury of rahmah. For example, like the eye is a key to the treasury containing precious jewels such as the beauty and jamâl on the face of the universe, so too the others (each of them) become the key of an ‘âlam and benefit through îmân. To resume after our digression:

Al-Qadîr and Hakîm One Who created this universe created also life as a comprehensive summary of the universe and concentrated all of His purposes and the manifestations of His Names therein. So too, within the ‘âlam of life, he made of rizq a comprehensive centre of shuûnah and created within animate beings the taste for rizq, thus causing animate beings to respond to His Rubûbiyyah and love with a permanent and universal gratitude, thankfulness, and ‘ibâdah that is one of the significant purposes and instances of hikmah inherent in the creation of the universe.

For example, it is a hikmah of shuûnah of Rubûbiyyah like He cause every area of the broad Rabbânî realm to rejoice - the samâwât are caused to rejoice with the malâikah and rûh beings, al-‘âlam al-ghayb with rûhs, so too, the material ‘âlam, particularly the air and the earth, with the existence of all rûh beings, particularly birds, great and small5 , at all times and places, through the hikmah of this causing to rejoice and the infusion of life and rûh, animals and men are, as it was, whipped by the need for rizq and the pleasure they take therein to pursue their rizq, thus being delivered from sloth. Were it not for such significant instances of hikmah, the provision destined for animals would be caused instinctively to hasten toward them to satisfy their fitrî needs, without any effort on their part, just as provision and sustenance are caused to hasten toward the tree.

Were there to be an eye capable of witnessing and comprehending the whole surface of the earth at one time, in order to perceive the beauties of the Names of Rahîm and Razzâq and the witness they bear to Wahdâniyyah, it would see what sweet beauty is contained in the tender and solicitous manifestation of Ar-Razzâq Ar-Rahîm Who sends to the caravans of animals at the end of winter, when their provision is about to be exhausted, extremely delicious, abundant and varied foods and ni’mahs, drawn exclusively from His ghayb treasury of rahmah, as succour from the ghayb and Rahmânî bestowal, placed in the hands of plants, the crowns of trees, and the breasts of mothers. The possessor of that all-seeing eye would realize the following:

The making of a single apple, and the generous giving of it to a man as true rizq, can be accomplished only by a Being Who causes the seasons, the nights and the days to rotate, Who causes the globe to revolve like a cargo ship, and thus brings the fruits of the seasons within reach of those needy guests of the earth who stand to wait for them. For the stamp of its fitrah, the seal of hikmah, the imprint of Samadiyyah, the signet of rahmah that is to be found on the surface of the apple, is to be found also on all apples and other fruits, plants and animals. Hence the True Mâlik and Sâni’ of the apple is bound to be Al-Mâlik Zuljalâl, Al-Khâliq Zuljamâl of all the inhabitants of the world, who are the peers, the congeners and the brothers of the apple; of the vast earth that is the garden of the apple; of the tree that is its factory; of the seasons that are its workshop; and of the spring and summer that are its place of tarbiyyah.

In other words, every fruit is a seal of wahdah that makes known the Writer and Sâni’ of the earth, its tree, and of the book of the universe, its garden; it demonstrates His wahdah and shows to the number of fruits, the seal affixed to the decree of Wahdâniyyah.

Since the Risale-i Nur is a manifestation of the Names of Rahîm and Hakîm, and numerous flashes and mysteries of the haqiqah of Rahîmiyyah have been expounded and proved in many parts of the Risale-i Nur, we leave further discussion of the matter to those parts and content ourselves with this brief indication, out of a vast treasury, on account of the unfavourable circumstances from which we are now suffering.” The Seventh Ray-2nd Chapter-3th Stopping-Place

 

اِنَّ اللّهَ هُوَ الرَّزَّاقُ ذُو الْقُوَّةِ الْمَتِينُ and ma’nâ as-sarîh of the âyah,وَمَا مِنْ دَابَّةٍ فِى اْلاَرْضِ اِلاَّ عَلَى اللّٰهِ رِزْقُهَا he will find enough rizq to live on in unexpected ways. Because the âyah guarantees it. Yes, there are two sorts of rizq:

One is haqîqî rizq that one will live with it. This rizq is guaranteed by Ar-Rabb by the decree of this âyah6 . So long as one’s misuse of his will does not interfere, he may find this essential rizq under any circumstances. One will not be compelled to sacrifice his religion, or his honour, or his dignity.

The second sort is metaphorical rizq that one cannot abandon due to inessential needs becoming like essential ones through bad use and being addicted to it through the calamity of custom and tradition. Since this rizq is not guaranteed by Ar-Rabb, obtaining this rizq, especially at this time, is very expensive. One takes this inauspicious good without barakah by first of all sacrificing his honour and accepting abasement, and sometimes degrading to the situation of beggary in a ma’nawî manner, as much as kissing the feet of the vile, and sometimes sacrificing the sacred matters of religion, which are the nûr of eternal life.

Also, at this time of poverty and necessity, the sorrow which the people of conscience experience for the anguish of the hungry and needy by means of the feeling of compassion for mankind -if one has a conscience- sours the pleasure to be had from the money which is acquired illicitly. It is necessary to suffice one’s self with doubtful goods to the degree of dharûrah in such a strange time. For through the mystery, اِنَّ الضَّرُورَةَ تُقَدَّرُ بِقَدْرِهَا ,7 with necessity, one may take from haram goods to the degree of dharûrah, and may not take more. Yes, one who is in dire need may not eat haram meat to fill his stomach. Rather, one may only eat enough not to die. Also, more cannot be eaten with unspoilt pleasure in the presence of  a hundred hungry people.” The Nineteenth Flash/4th Point

 

وَاْلآجَالُ الْمُعَيَّنَةُ وَاْلاَرْزَاقُ الْمُقَنَّنَةُ . That is: For such an important hikmah, the appointed time for the end of one's life and rizq that have been imagined as undefined and unknown to an exterior look, but under the veil of indefiniteness, the appointed time for the end of living being's life is determined and designated on the page of appointed events by Allah in the notebook of pre-eternal Ilahî qadhâ and qadar; it is neither brought forward nor delayed. And, there are infinite evidences that the rizq of every being with rûh is also appointed and specified and written on the tablets of qadhâ and qadar. For example, the occurrence of death for a huge tree and leaving behind its seed, which is its rûh of a sort, to perform duties in its place through an ‘Alîm Who is Hafîdh’s law with hikmah; the coming of the milk, which is the rizq of an infant, from the breast, and its emergence between blood and excrement, and flowing into their mouths pure and clean without mess; reject decisively the possibility of chance and shows decisively that they occur through the compassionate law of a Rahîm Al-‘Alîm Who is Razzâq. You may make an analogy with these two small examples for all living creatures and beings with rûhs.

That is to say, in haqiqah, both the appointed time for the end of one's life is defined and decreed, and the rizq has been registered in the notebook of appointed events through a distinguishment, which appropriates everybody individually. But for an extremely important hikmah, behind the veil of the ghayb, both the appointed time for the end of one's life and rizq seem undefined, unknown and apparently bound to coincidence.  If the appointed time for the end of one's life had been defined like the setting of the sun, in absolute ghaflah, half of life would be perished by not working for the âkhirah, and in the second half of life, the calamity in the appointed time for the end of one's life through a terrifying fear in taking one more step towards the gallows of death would increase a hundredfold. Due to this mystery, the calamities one suffers and even the qiyâmah, which is the world's appointed time for the end of its life, have mercifully been left in the veil of the ghayb. As for rizq, since after life itself is the greatest treasure of ni’mahs, and the richest source of shukr and hamd, and the most comprehensive mine of ‘ubûdiyyah, du'â and entreaty, it has apparently been shown undefined and bound to coincidence. In order that the door of seeking rizq through the shafâ’ah of seeking refuge at the Court of Al-Karîm Who is Razzâq, and entreaty and beseeching and hamd and shukr every time is not closed. Otherwise, if it had been defined, its essence would have been altogether changed. The doors of thankful, grateful du'âs and entreaties, indeed of submissively ‘ubûdiyyah, would have been closed.” The Fifteenth Ray-Second Station-7th, 8th Evidences

 

Second Subtle Point

The Second of the Twenty-Second Subtle Point

بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَاْلاِنْسَ اِلاَّ لِيَعْبُدُونِ مَا اُرِيدُ مِنْهُمْ مِنْ رِزْقٍ وَمَا اُرِيدُ اَنْ يُطْعِمُونِ اِنَّ اللّهَ هُوَ الرَّزَّاقُ ذُو الْقُوَّةِ الْمَتِينُ8

Since the apparent meaning of this Noble âyah that is explained by many tafsirs does not demonstrate the elevated miraculous expression of the Qur'an,  they have been occupying my mind for a long time. We shall now explain briefly three aspects of their extremely beautiful and exalted meanings, which proceed from the faydh of the Qur'an.

The First: To honour and ennoble His Rasûl, Janâb-i Haqq sometimes attributes certain states to Himself, which may pertain to His Rasûl. Here also, the âyah, "I created you for ‘ibâdah; not to give Me rizq and feed me," in this meaning: "My Rasûl does not want a wage, recompense, or reward, or to be fed in return for his duty of Prophethood and service of the tablîgh of ‘ubûdiyyah" should refer to Ar-Rasûl Al-Akram ‘Alayhissalâtu Wassalâm being given food and rizq. Otherwise, it would be the informing of something self-evidently known, and it is not appropriate to balâghat9 of the Qur'an's miraculousness.

The Second Aspect: Since man is excessively addicted to rizq so he may not find an excuse through supposing the pretext of working for rizq is an obstacle for ‘ubûdiyyah, the noble âyah says that: "You were created for ‘ubûdiyyah. The result of your creation is ‘ubûdiyyah. Working for rizq is a sort of ‘ubûdiyyah, in the point of being a command by Allah. You were not created to procure rizq for your nafs and your families and animals who are my creatures, that rizq which I have undertaken,, so to say you were not created to produce the rizq and feeding that belong to Me. For Ar-Razzâq is Me. I provide the rizq of my ‘abds and to those who are your dependents. So do not abandon ‘ubûdiyyah by making it an excuse!"

If the meaning is not this, it will be a sort of making known something that is already known, for the impossibility of feeding and giving rizq to Janâb-i Haqq is self-evident and known. It is an established rule in ‘Ilm of Balâghat that if the meaning of a word is known and evident, that meaning is not intended, but a meaning necessitated by it and dependent on its intention. For example, if you say to someone: "You are a hâfidh," is a sort of making something known which is already known. That means, the intended meaning is this: "I know that you are a hâfidh." You are informing him because he did not know that you knew.

Thus, as a consequence of this rule, the meaning of the âyah, which is alluded by the prohibition of Janâb-i Haqq being fed and given rizq is this: "You were not created in order to produce rizq for My creatures, which are Mine and whose rizq I have guaranteed. Rather, your fundamental duty is ‘ubûdiyyah. It is also a sort of ‘ibâdah to strive for rizq in accordance with My commands.

The Third Aspect: Since in Surah al-Ikhlas, the apparent meaning of لَمْ يَلِدْ وَ لَمْ يُولَدْ 10   is known and evident, a meaning is intended which is necessitated by the meaning. That is, as Janâb-i Haqq decrees in meaning, in an extremely known and evident manner,  لَمْ يَلِدْ وَ لَمْ يُولَدْ11 : "Those who have a mother and children cannot be Ilahs," and with the intention of negating the ulûhiyyah of Hazrat ‘Îsâ (as), and ‘Uzayr (as), and the malâikah, and stars, and other ma’bûds which are not haqq, and in meaning "pre-eternal and post-eternal," in exactly the same way, in our example too, the âyah, which has the meaning of: "Things which receive rizq and are being fed cannot be Ilah or ma’bûd" and "Ar-Razzâq Zuljalal Who is your Ma’bûd, does not want rizq for Himself and you were not created to feed Him", means the beings, those who are in need of rizq and are fed are not worthy of ma’bûdiyyah. The Twenty-Eighth Flash

 

 

1 (Allah is Ar-Razzâq, the firm possessor of strength)

2 (There is no moving thing on earth but depends on Allah for its rizq; He knows its resting-place and storage-place; all are in a kitâb mubîn.)

3 (The beasts do not carry their rizq; Allah gives rizq to them and you, and He is Sami’, ‘Alîm)

4 (How many ‘âlim has striven in vain, and how many an ignoramus gained rich rizq)

5 (represents flies and flying insects)

6 (Qur'an, 11:6.)

7 (Dharûrah is determined according to its extent)

8 (I have not created jinns and mankind except to perform ‘ibâdah to me. I seek no rizq from them, nor do I ask that they should feed Me. Surely it is Allah Who is Razzâq, the owner of Power, Who is Matîn.)

9 Balaghât denotes fullness and accuracy in the expression of thoughts by speech, being eloquent in speech and writing. The part of eloquence which consists of a selection of the words used as accurately, fully and gracefully to represent the meaning intended, but without any figures of speech. It consists, as a science of two parts, the signification of terms and grammar, and figurative language is its complement. (Tr.)

10 (He begets not, nor is He begotten)

11 (He begets not, nor is He begotten)

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