بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ وَ الصَّلاَةُ وَ السَّلاَمُ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ وَ عَلَى آلِهِ وَ صَحْبِهِ اَجْمَعِينَ
اللّٰه - ALLAH (Jalla Jalâluhu) – Part- 2
As a drop from the ocean, some examples of the evidences of îmân in Allah and rejecting naturalism from The Risale-i Nur Collection:
As the examples mentioned in Allah (Jalla Jalâluhu) – Part 1 compilation, there are evidences that prove the existence, oneness and attributes of Allah by reason, logic and science and demonstrate evidently the haqiqah of îmân in Allah; the haqiqahs in the universe also proves the impossibility and invalidity of shirk.
The first example of the proofs of îmân in Allah and rejecting naturalism from The Risale On Nature, 23rd Flash:
قَالَتْ رُسُلُهُمْ اَفِى اللّٰهِ شَكٌّ فَاطِرِ السَّمٰوَاتِ وَاْلاَرْضِ1 With istifham inkârî2 , saying: “There cannot and should not be any doubt about Janâb-i Haqq”, this noble âyah shows that the existence and wahdâniyyah of Allah are at the degree of being self-evident.
…O, man! Know that there are terrible words that are spoken by people and reek of irreligiousness. The people of îmân use them unknowingly. We shall declare three of the most important of them.
The First: “أوجدته الاسباب ” That is: “Causes create this thing.”
The Second: “تشكّل بنفسه ” That is: “It is formed and comes into existence on its own; it comes to an end on its own.”
The Third: “اقتضته الطبيعة ” That is: “It is natural; nature necessitates and creates it.”
Yes, since beings exist and cannot be denied. Also, each being comes into existence with art and hikmah. Also, since each is not uncreated but newly comes into existence. In any way, O mulhid! This being, for example, this animal, you will say either that the causes in the universe create it, that is to say, it comes into existence through the gathering of causes, or it is formed on its own, or it comes into existence through the effect of nature as a requirement of nature, or it is created through the qoudrah of a Qadîr Zuljalâl. Since, by reason, there is no way apart from these four ways, if the first three are definitely proven to be inconceivable, void, unfeasible and impossible, the way of wahdâniyyah, which is the fourth way, necessarily and self-evidently will be proven without a doubt.
AS FOR THE FIRST WAY:
It is the formation of things and the existence of creatures through the gathering of the causes in the universe. We mention only three of its many impossibilities.
First: In a pharmacy, there are hundreds of jars and bottles filled with extremely various substances. A living compound is demanded to be made by using those medicaments. Making a wondrous living panacea by using them is also requested. We came and saw most of the ingredients of that living compound and panacea in the pharmacy. We examined each of the compounds. We see that the components have been taken in various amounts from each of the jars and bottles with an appropriate measure, one or two ounces from this, three or four from that, six or seven from the next, and so on... If one ounce more or less is taken from one of them, that compound cannot possess life and cannot display its special quality. We also examined that living panacea. A substance has been taken from each jar in an appropriate measure that if it was an ounce more or less, the panacea would lose its special quality.
While the number of the jars is more than fifty, as though having been taken from each jar with a different measure, their components have been taken with different amounts. I wonder, is it in any way possible that, those various amounts that were taken from each of those bottles — only those amounts — may spill, go together, gather and form the compound due to the bottles and jars having been knocked over by the impact of a strange coincidence or stormy wind? I wonder, is there anything more superstitious, impossible and void (bâtil) than this? If a donkey rises twofold in being an ass and then becomes a human being, it will run away by saying: “I do not accept this idea!”
Thus, like this example, each living being surely is a living compound and each plant is like a living panacea composed of numerous components and various substances that have been taken with extremely precise measures. If they are attributed to causes and elements and it is said: “Causes created it”, it is unreasonable, impossible and void (bâtil) a hundred times over, just as the compound in the pharmacy coming into existence due to the bottles being knocked over.
In Short: The substances needed for life in this great pharmacy of the ‘âlam, which are taken with the measure of Qadar and Qadhâ3 of the Azalî Hakîm, can only come into existence through a boundless hikmah, infinite ‘ilm and an irâdah encompassing everything. The unfortunate person who says “They are the work of universal elements and causes and nature, which are blind, deaf and boundless and which stream like a flood” is fooler than a crazy, delirious, drunk fool who says: “That wondrous panacea has been formed on itself due to the bottles being knocked over.” Indeed, such kufr is to talk nonsense in a stupid, drunken lunatic way.
The Twenty-Third Flash
The second example of the proofs of îmân in Allah and rejecting naturalism from The Risale On The Ana and The Particle, 30th Word:
In every particle — in its movement and in its becoming motionless — two nûrs of tawhîd shine like two suns. Because as is proved briefly in the First Indication of the Tenth Word and in detail in the Twenty-Second Word, if each particle is not an official of Allah and does not act with His permission and under His control, and if it does not move through His ‘ilm and qoudrah, then each particle must possess infinite ‘ilm and limitless qoudrah; it must possess eyes that see everything, a face that looks to everything and a command that controls everything. Because each particle of the elements orderly works, or can work in each living being’s body. The order of things and the laws of their formation are opposed to each other. If their order is not known, the particles cannot work; even if they work, they cannot work without error. But they work without error. In which case, those serving particles are either working with the permission and at the command of the Owner of an encompassing ‘Ilm and through His ‘Ilm and Irâdah, or they must possess such an encompassing ‘ilm and qoudrah.
Yes, each particle of air can enter each living being’s body, each fruit of each flower and the structure of each leaf; it can work there. But their formation is in different ways; they have different orders. As though the factory of a fig is a broadcloth machine and the factory of a pomegranate is a sugar machine, and so on… The programmes of those structures and bodies are different from each other. Now, this particle of air enters or can enter all of them. It works and takes positions without error in an extremely expert fashion full of hikmah. After its duty is over, it departs.
Thus, just as a moving particle of moving air either must know the shape and formation of forms and measures with which plants, animals and even their fruits and flowers are clothed or else it must be an official following the command and irâdah of One Who knows; each stationary particle of stationary soil, since it has the ability to be the means and source for all the seeds of all flowering plants and fruit-bearing trees, and since in that particle, that is in a handful of soil, which is identical with a particle in terms of having the same essence, there is a factory special to it and all the equipment and machines needed for the things necessary for the factory and its formation, either there must be well-ordered ma’nawî machines and factories to the number of the varieties of the trees, plants, flowers and fruits in that particle and in that handful of soil, which is its little house, or it must possess a miraculous ‘ilm and qoudrah that create everything out of nothing and knows everything about all things, or else those duties are made to be performed at the command and with permission, power and might of The Absolute Qadîr, The ‘Alîm of All Things.
TheThirtieth Word-Second Aim-1st Point-1st Matter
The third example from The Second Ray compares the ways of shirk with that of wahdah in terms of the creation of things:
The creation of things is either from non-existence or in the way of composition, it is collected from the elements and beings. If it is attributed to a Single Being, that Being must possess an ‘Ilm encompassing everything and a Qoudrah invading and pervading4 everything. And in this way, the giving of external existence to things, whose forms and existences in the form of knowledge are present in His ‘ilm, and bringing them out of presumed non-existence, it is as easy and simple as striking a match or spreading a special chemical over an invisible writing in order to show it, or an easy surgical operation of transferring an image from photographic film to paper; through the command of كن فيكون5 , in a very easy way, As-Sâni’ brings out things, whose plans, programmes and ma’nawî measures are present in His ‘ilm, from presumed non-existence into external existence.
If they are made by the way of construction (inshâ) and composition and by not creating from nothing and non-existence but in the way of collecting from the elements and surroundings, just as in terms of the members of a battalion, who were dispersed to rest, mustering at the call of a trumpet and taking a well-ordered position and facilitating the dispatch and preserving their position the whole army is the power, law and eye of its commander, in the same way, through the principles of His ‘ilm and qadar and the laws of His invading and pervading qoudrah, the particles, which are under the command of As-Sultân of the universe, and the beings, with whom those particles have contact, are mobilized and move like the power, law and officials of that Sultân as a facilitator. In order to form a body of a living being, they enter into a specified measure and proportion, which is a ma’nawî mould of ‘Ilm and Qadar, and there they stop.
If things are referred to different hands and things like causes and nature, then according to the unanimous testimony of all reasonable people, no cause can in any way create from nothing and non-existence. Because since causes do not possess an encompassing ‘ilm and invading and pervading qoudrah, such non-existence would not only be presumed and external non-existence but rather absolute non-existence. As for absolute non-existence, in any way, it cannot be the source of existence. Therefore, causes must compose. But on the way of construction (inshâ) and composition, after collecting the body and substance of a fly or flower from all over the earth and sifting them with a fine sieve, those special particles can come together with innumerable difficulties. And after coming together, since they do not possess ma’nawî moulds and moulds existing in the form of knowledge, in order to preserve a well-ordered position in that body without dispersing, there must be a physical, natural mould, rather, moulds to the number of their members so that the particles, which came together, can form the body of a living being.
Thus, attributing all things to a Single Being is easy to the degree of being wâjib and necessity, and attributing them to numerous causes is difficult to the degree of impossibility and unfeasibility. In the same way, if all things are attributed to the One Who is Al-Wâhid and Al-Ahad, they become extremely valuable, wondrously artful, very meaningful and powerful within infinite inexpensiveness. If on the way of shirk, they are referred to numerous causes and nature, they become extremely valueless, meaningless, powerless and lack art within infinite expensiveness. Because in terms of being a soldier, a man is related (intisâb) to a great commander-in-chief, he relies on him, he also gains the ma’nawî power that can amass the power of the army behind him if it is needed, he also acquires a physical strength thousands of times more than his power, through the commander and army's power being his reserve force, he also gains the power to perform wondrous works because he is not compelled to carry the sources of that significant strength of his and his ammunition because the army carries them, he obtains a power that can perform extraordinary works, therefore, that one single soldier can capture an enemy field marshal and compel all the inhabitants of a town to migrate and capture a citadel. His works will be extraordinary and valuable. If he leaves being a soldier and remains on his own, by losing that wondrous ma’nawî power, extraordinary strength and miraculous force at once, he can perform only minor, insignificant and valueless works according to his personal strength like an ordinary civilian and his works will diminish proportionately.
In exactly the same way, since on the way of tawhîd, everything is related (intisâb) with Al-Qadîr Zuljalâl and relies on Him, an ant defeated a Pharaoh, a fly defeated a Nimrod and a microbe defeated a tyrant… Just as by bearing a tree the size of a mountain on its shoulders, a seed the size of a fingernail becomes a workbench, which is the source and store-house of all members and equipment of the tree, so too, each particle, through that relation (intisâb) and reliance, can perform innumerable duties, which are the forming of shapes and bodies that possess a hundred thousand sorts and arts. The works, which those tiny officials and very fine soldiers display, become extremely perfect, artful and valuable. For, the One Who makes those works is Al-Qadîr Zuljalâl. He put those works in their hands and made them veils. If on the way of shirk, they are referred to causes, the work of an ant would be as insignificant as an ant, and the art of particle would have no value even as much as a particle, and just as everything would degrade in a ma’nawî manner, so would they physically degrade to such a degree that no one would buy the huge world for five coins.
Since the haqiqah is this, and since we see with our own eyes that everything is infinitely valuable, artful, meaningful and powerful, most certainly, there is no way other than the way of tawhîd and there cannot be. If there were, it would be necessary to change all beings and empty the world into non-existence and refill it with meaningless rubbish and filth so that a way could be opened to shirk.
The Second Ray- The Second Necessity of Wahdâniyyah
The fourth example from The Thirty-Third Word proves that the extraordinary art and hikmah in things dismiss the causes from being the creator and attribute the effects to the Causer of Causes6 :
اَللّٰهُ خَالِقُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَكِيلٌ7 We look at things which appear to be causes and effects in the universe and we see that the most elevated cause does not possess sufficient power for the most ordinary effect. It means that causes are a veil; someone else creates the effects. For example, as only a small example out of innumerable artful beings, we look at the faculty of memory, which is placed in man's head in a space as tiny as a mustard seed. We see that it is a book so comprehensive, rather, a library in which without confusion the entire story of a person's life is written. I wonder, what cause can be the means of this miracle of Qoudrah? The brain convolutions? The simple unconscious particles of cells? The winds of coincidence? But that miracle of art can only be the art of such a Sâni’ Al-Hakîm, Who writes and copies out a small voucher and gives it to the hand of man’s mind in order to inform him that the actions he performed were recorded and he will be recalled at the time of questioning about the great book of his deeds which will be published at the time of rising from the dead and assembling for judgment. Thus, make an analogy with all eggs, seeds and grains, which resemble man's faculty of memory, and compare other effects to these small and comprehensive miracles.
Because whichever effect and work of art you look at, it contains such wonderful art that not only its ordinary and simple cause but if all causes were to get together, they would declare their impotence before it. For example, if the sun, which is considered to be a great cause, was supposed to possess will and consciousness and if it was said to it: "Can you make the body of a fly?", of course, it would reply: "Through the bestowal of my Khâliq, there is plenty of light, heat and colours in my shop, but such things in the fly's being as eyes, ears and life are neither in my shop nor are they within my power."
Also, just as the wonderful art and adornment in effects dismiss causes, and by pointing Al-Wâjib Al-Wujûd, Who is the Causer of Causes8 , they hand over matters to Him according to the mystery of the âyah وَ اِلَيْهِ يُرْجَعُ اْلاَمْرُ كُلُّهُ9 . In the same way, the results, purposes and benefits that are attached to effects evidently demonstrate that they are the works of a Rabb, Who is Karîm, a Hakîm, Who is Rahîm, beyond the veil of causes. Because unconscious causes certainly cannot work by thinking of a purpose. Whereas, we see that each creature comes into existence by following not one, but many purposes, benefits and hikmahs. That means a Rabb, Who is Hakîm and Karîm, makes those things and sends them. He makes those benefits the purpose of their existence.
For example, rain comes. It is well-known how distant the causes, which appear to produce the consequence of rain, are from thinking of animals and having pity and mercy on them. That means it is sent to help through the hikmah of a Khâliq Ar-Rahîm, Who creates the animals and guarantees their rizq. Rain is even called rahmah. Because since it comprises numerous benefits and works of rahmah, it is as if rahmah has embodied in the form of rain, has been formed into drops and comes as drops.
Also, all adorned plants and the spectacular and adorned states of animals, which smile at the faces of all creatures, evidently indicate the necessary existence and wahdah of a Zuljalâl One, Who wants to make Himself known and recognized and to cause Himself to be loved through these adorned and beautiful arts, behind the veil of ghayb. It means that the adorned states and spectacular conditions of things decisively indicate the attributes of making known and causing to be loved. While the attributes of making known and causing himself to be loved evidently testify to the necessary existence and wahdah of a Sâni’ Al-Qadîr, Who is Wadûd and Ma’ruf.
In Short: Since causes are extremely ordinary and impotent and the effects attributed to them are extremely valuable and full of art, this dismisses causes. The purposes and benefits of effects also eliminate ignorant and lifeless causes being intermediaries and hand them over to a Sâni’, Who is Hakîm. Also, the adornments and abilities on the face of effects indicate a Sâni’ Al-Hakîm, Who wants to make His qoudrah known to conscious beings and desires to cause Himself to be loved.
The Thirty-Third Word-Twenty-Seventh Window
And since arranging and especially following purposes and putting in order by protecting benefits can only be through ‘ilm and hikmah and can only be performed through irâdah and will, certainly and in any case, this order full of hikmah and this infinitely varied order of the creatures full of benefits in front of our eyes evidently indicate and testify that Al-Khâliq and Al-Mudabbir of beings is one; He is Fâ’il and Mukhtâr. Everything comes into being through His qoudrah, takes a particular position through His irâdah and wears a well-ordered form through His will.
The Seventh Ray-Second Chapter-Fifth Haqiqah
The âyah وَاِنَّ لَكُمْ فِى اْلاَنْعَامِ لَعِبْرَةًۜ نُسْق۪يكُمْ مِمَّا ف۪ى بُطُونِه۪ مِنْبَيْنِ فَرْثٍ وَدَمٍ لَبَنًا خَالِصًا سَٓائِغًا لِلشَّارِب۪ينَ10 is a decree from which lessons to heed overflow. Yes, placing in the nipples of mothers, foremost the cow, camel, goat and sheep, which are the milk factories, amid blood and excrement but without being contaminated or becoming turbid, pure, clean, pleasant, nutritive and white milk completely opposite to them, and placing in their hearts self-sacrificing compassion toward their young that is more pleasant, sweeter and more valuable than the milk certainly require such a degree of rahmah, hikmah, ‘ilm, qoudrah, will and care that it cannot in any way be the work of turbulent coincidences, the confusing elements, or blind forces.
Thus, the manifestation, disposal, performance and comprehensiveness of such a miraculous art of Ar-Rabb and the act of Allah full of hikmah all over the face of the earth and in the innumerable hearts and breasts of innumerable mothers of hundreds of thousands of species, in the same instant, the same fashion, with the same hikmah and the same care evidently prove the wahdah.
The Seventh Ray-Second Chapter-Second Haqiqah-Second âyah
2 [The negative question form in the Qur’an which implies negation and is asked to stress the falsehood of something. The question form which is not interrogative but an exclamatory statement expressing disapproval and absurdness of the claim.
There are numerous examples of it in the Qur’an. For example, أَمْ لَهُ الْبَنَاتُ وَلَكُمُ الْبَنُونَ “Is He to have daughters and you sons?” (52:39)] (Tr.)
3 (Allah's decree, by which all events occur; the accomplishment of Allah’s decree which is in Qadar)
4 (Invading and pervading – Mustawlî: The manifestation of Allah’s attribute الاستواء (Istiwâ) belonging to His essence.) (Tr.)
5 (Be and it is!)
6 (Musabbib Al-Asbâb: The creator of the causes and effects, Allah Jalla Jalâluhu.)
7 (Allah is Al-Khâliq of all things, and of all things He is Al-Wakîl.)
8 (Musabbib Al-Asbâb: The creator of the causes and effects, Allah Jalla Jalâluhu.)
9 (And to Him all matters are returned.)
10 (Surely there is a lesson for you in cattle. We give you to drink of what is in their bellies, between bowels and blood - pure milk - pleasant for those who drink it.)