TAFRÎT – تفريط
Literally: A doing less than one's duty. Remissness. Imperfect performance. A granting delay or respite. Deficiency in action.
As an Islamic term: Deviating from istiqâmah and falling into deficiency.
“Since by disposition, Ar-Rasûl Al-Akram ‘Alayhissalâtu Wassalâm was created in a most equable state and in the most perfect form, his actions and quiescence were on moderation and istiqâmah. His biography (Siyar as-Saniyyah) definitely shows that in all his actions he was on istiqâmah and moderation, and abstained from ifrât and tafrît.
Yes, since Ar-Rasûl Al-Akram ‘Alayhissalâtu Wassalâm completely conformed to the command فَاسْتَقِمْ كَمَٓا اُمِرْتَ1 , istiqâmah is definitely seen in all his acts, words and states. For example, by being free of stupidity (gabâwah) and deceptive intelligence (jarbaza)2 , which are the ifrât and tafrît of al-quwwa al-aqliyyah that of its corruption and dhulm, his quwwa al-aqliyyah always acted on the point of hikmah3 , which is the boundary of justice (wasat) and means of istiqâmah. So too, by being free of having no fear of anything ma’nawî nor material (tahawwur) and being free of cowardice, which are the corruption, ifrât and tafrît of al-quwwa al-ghadhabiyyah, his quwwa al-ghadhabiyyah always acted with sacred shajâ'ah, which is the means of istiqâmah and the boundary of justice (wasat) of quwwa al-ghadhabiyyah. And so too, by being purified of extinction (khumud)4 and desiring whatever is encountered whether halal or haram (fujûr), which are the corruption, ifrât and tafrît of al-quwwa ash-shahawiyyah, his quwwa ash-shahawiyyah always took ‘iffah, which is the means of istiqâmah of that power (quwwa), as a guide, at the degree of maximum innocence. And so on... In all his Sunnah as-Saniyyah, his fıtrî conduct, and injunctions of his Sharî’ah, he willed the boundary of istiqâmah and abstained from ifrât and tafrît, wastefulness and prodigality, which are dhulm and darkness. He absolutely abstained from wastefulness and took frugality as his guide even in his speech and in eating and drinking. Thousands of books have been written concerning the details of this haqiqah.” The 11th Flash-11th Subtle Point
“Since the time of Âdam (as), two mighty currents in mankind have come by conflicting with each other. One is that of the people of nubuwwah, righteousness and îmân, who through following istiqâmah, receive the ni’mahs and happiness in both worlds. Since they act in istiqâmah in accordance with the true beauty, order and perfection of the universe, they both receive the favours of the universe's Owner and happiness in this world and the âkhirah, and being the means of mankind rising to the level of the Malâikah, or higher, through the haqiqahs of îmân, they attain a ma’nawî Jannah in this world, and bliss in the âkhirah and they cause others to win these too.
The second current, due to transforming the mind into an instrument which collects pains and means of tortures by abandoning istiqâmah, through ifrât and tafrît, it casts humanity down to a degree lower than the animals. And in return for their dhulm in this world, together with receiving the slaps of Ilahî wrath and calamity, their rûhs and consciences are in a ma’nawî Jahannam in this world due to seeing the universe as a place of universal mourning and as the slaughterhouse of living creatures rolling over in perishment, and extremely ugly and confused, with the connection of mind, in terms of their dhalâlah, and they make themselves deserving of everlasting torment in the âkhirah.
Thus, the âyah, اَلَّذِينَ اَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ الضَّالِّينَ at the end of Surah al-Fâtiha instructs us of these two mighty currents. And this âyah is the source, basis, and ustadh of all the comparisons in the Risale-i Nur. Since the Nûrs do tafsir this âyah with hundreds of comparisons, referring the further explanation to them, we suffice with this brief indication.” The Fifteenth Ray/The First Station/A Brief Summary of the Noble Fâtiha/The 8th Phrase
“This elucidates and spells out [what] fisq [consists of], for fisq is a renunciation of Haqq and to exceed the limits and quit the hard shell. Fisq is either ifrât or tafrît in the three quwwas of al-aqliyyah, al-ghadhabiyyah and ash-shahawiyyah5 . And ifrât and tafrît lead to rebellion in the face of the evidences that are like the Ilahî covenants (al-'uhûd) in fitrah. They also lead to sickness in personal life; the first attribute [in the above âyah] indicates this. So too they incite rebellion in the face of social life and break the bonds and laws of society. The second attribute indicates this. They also cause corruption and revolution, which spoil the order of the earth, as indicated by the third attribute. Yes, when fâsiq’s quwwa al-aqliyyah exceeds the bounds of moderation the depraved person breaks the bonds of the aqâid and smashes their strong shell, that is, eternal life. And when his quwwa al-ghadhabiyyah oversteps the mark he smashes the shell of social life. And when his quwwa ash-shahawiyyah exceeds the limits and he follows his desires, compassion for his fellow humans vanishes from his heart and he corrupts the people and makes difficulties for them in whatever he becomes involved in, and causes harm to the human race and spoils the order of the earth.” Signs of Miraculousness ( 232 )
“KNOW, O FRIEND, that modesty sometimes contradicts one’s proclaiming ni’mahs, for doing so sometimes gives rise to pride and arrogance. Thus, avoid tafrît and ifrât. The istiqâmah in one’s proclaiming ni’mahs is as follows: Every ni’mahs has two aspects. The first pertains to the one on whom Allah has bestowed it. This ni’mah distinguishes one in a community and leads to pride and forgetting the One Who gave it. Such people arrogate it to themselves, attributing it to their abilities or merits, and become haughty.
The second pertains to Al-Mun’im. The blessing displays His Munificence and rahmah and testifies to His Names. By the act of bestowing ni’mahs, He pronounces the âyahs of the manifestation of His Names. Modesty should be shown in the first case, while it becomes kufr an-ni’mah if shown in the second one. If one attributes to Allah and His Munificence all the ni’mahs that have been bestowed to him and feels no self-pride, his proclaiming the ni’mahs bestowed on him will be a ma’nawî shukr.
O Yûsuf Kishri. When you wear splendid clothes, Said says to you: “How beautiful you are.” You say: “Beauty belongs to the clothes, not to me.” This is both modesty and a proclamation of ni’mahs.” Al-Mathnawi al-Nuri (321)
1 (Therefore stand firm [in istiqâmah] as you are commanded)
3 (To know and distinguish haqq and bâtil, obeying haqq and abstaining from bâtil)
4 (Having no longing for anything.)
5 (powers of mind, anger, and animal appetites)