LESSONS / Compilations

 بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ وَ الصَّلاَةُ وَ السَّلاَمُ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ وَ عَلَى آلِهِ وَ صَحْبِهِ اَجْمَعِينَ


“Why are the shaytans created and brought into existence? Janâb-i Haqq created the shaytan and sharrs; what is the hikmah in it? Isn't the creation of sharr, sharr, and the creation of ugly, ugly?

The Answer: Hâsha!, the creation of sharr is not sharr, the kasb of sharr is sharr. Because creation and bringing into existence look to all the consequences, for kasb is a setting concerning the execution of a particular act and contiguity particularly, it looks to a particular result. For example, there are thousands of consequences for rain coming, and all of them are good. If through misuse of will, some people receive harm from the rain, they cannot say that the creation of rain is not rahmah, they cannot judge that the creation of rain is sharr. Rather, it became sharr for them due to the misuse of their will and kasb. Also, there are many benefits in the creation of fire, and all of them are khayr. But if some receive harm from fire through their misuse of the fire and their kasb, they cannot say that the creation of fire is sharr; because it was not only created to burn them. Rather, they thrust their hands into the fire which cooks his food through misuse of their will and made that servant of theirs enemy to themselves.

In Short: The little sharr is acceptable for the great khayr. If a sharr that results in great khayr is abandoned for the little sharr not occurring, it would be perpetrating a great sharr. For example, there are certainly some minor material and physical harms and sharrs in sending soldiers to jihâd, but within jihâd is a great khayr whereby Islam is saved from being conquered by kâfirs. If the jihâd is abandoned for those little sharrs, then the great sharr will come after the great khayr has gone. That is the dhulm itself. Also, for example, to amputate a finger which is infected with gangrene and needs to be amputated is khayr and right, although it is apparently a sharr. Because if it is not amputated, the hand will be amputated, and that would be a great sharr.

Thus, the creation and bringing into existence of sharrs, harms, tribulations, shaytans and harmful things are not sharr and ugly, for they are created for the many important results. For example, Malâikah do not have progression; their ranks are fixed and do not change for shaytans do not pester them by attacking. Also, the ranks of the animals are fixed and deficient, for shaytans do not pester them by attacking. However, in the ‘âlam of mankind, the degrees of progress and decline are infinite. From the Nimrods and Pharaohs as far as the siddîq awliyâ and the Prophets, there is an extremely long distance of progress.

Thus, through the creation of shaytans and the mystery of man's accountability through the obligations placed on him by Allah and the sending of prophets an arena of examination and test and jihâd and competition has been opened for the distinguishment and separation of base rûhs like coal from elevated rûhs like diamond. If there had been no jihâd and competition, the potentialities in the mine of mankind which are like diamonds and coal would have remained equal. The rûh of Abu Bakr the Siddîq at the a’lâ ‘illiyyin would have remained on the same level as that of Abu Jahl’s rûh at the asfal sâfilîn. This means that since the creation of shaytans and sharrs look to great and universal results, their being brought into existence is not sharr or ugly. Rather, the sharr and ugliness that arise from misuses and kasb which is a setting concerning the execution of a particular act and contiguity particularly, belong to man's kasb, not to Ilahî creation.” The Twelfth Letter-Your Second Question


“Yes, as the Qur'an states, man is totally responsible for his evils, for it is he who wants the evils. Since evils are destructive, man may perpetrate much destruction with a single evil act, like burning down a house with one match, and he becomes deserving of an awesome punishment. However, he does not have the right to take pride in good deeds; his part in them is extremely small. For what wants and requires the good deeds is Ilahî Rahmah, and what creates them is Rabbânî Qoudrah. Both request and reply, reason and cause, are from Haqq. Man only comes to have them through du'â, îmân, consciousness, and contentment. As for evils, it is man's nafs that wants them, either through capacity or through choice, -like in the white and beautiful light of the sun some substances become black and putrefy, and the blackness is related to their capacity- however, it is Haqq Who creates the evils through an Ilahî law which comprises numerous benefits. That is to say, the cause and the request are from the nafs so that it is the nafs which is responsible, while it is Haqq Who creates the evils and brings them into existence, and since they have other results and fruits which are good, they are khayr.1

It is for the above mystery that the 'kasb' of sharr, is sharr, but the creation of sharr is not sharr. A lazy man who receives damage from rain, which comprises many instances of good, may not say that the rain is not rahmah. Yes, together with a minor sharr in its creation are numerous instances of khayr. To abandon that khayr for a minor sharr becomes a greater sharr. Therefore, a minor sharr becomes like khayr. There is no sharr or ugliness in Ilahî creation. They rather pertain to His ‘abd’s kasb and to his capacity.

Furthermore, Ilahî Qadar is both exempt from sharr and ugliness with regard to results and fruits, and free from dhulm and ugliness with respect to real cause (‘illah) and reason. Because qadar looks to the real causes (‘illah) and acts justly. Men construct their judgements on apparent causes and fall into error within the pure justice of qadar. For example, a judge finds you guilty of theft and sends you to prison. You are not a thief, but you have committed a murder which no one knows about. Thus, Ilahî qadar also sentenced you to imprisonment, but it sentenced you for the secret murder and acted justly. Since the judge sentenced you for a theft of which you were innocent, he acted by dhulm. Thus, in a single thing, the justice of qadar and Ilahî creation and man's kasb were apparent in two respects; you can make analogies with this for other things. That is to say, with regard to origin and end, source and branch, real causes (‘illah) and results, qadar and Ilahî creation are exempt from sharr, ugliness, and dhulm.” The Words ( 478-479)


“Ahl al-tahqîq and ahl al-kashf have agreed that non-existence is pure sharr and existence, pure khayr. Yes, in the great majority of cases, khayr, virtues, and perfections are based on the existence and are related to it. Even if they are superficially negative and hint to non-existence, their basis is in existence and pertains to it. While the basis and leaven of all ugliness, like dhalâlah, sharr, calamities, and sins, is non-existence and denial. Their badness and ugliness arise from non-existence. Even if they appear superficially to be positive and pertaining to existence, at basis they are non-existence and denial.

Also, observedly, the existence of something like a building is established through the existence of all its parts. While its destruction, non-existence and annihilation occur through the non-being of one of its main parts. Furthermore, existence requires an existent real and effective cause (‘illah), it is based on a cause which has an actual reality. Whereas non-existence may be based on things which pertain to non-existence. Such things are the real and effective cause (‘illah) of something non-existent.

It is as a consequence of this rule that despite the awesome destruction in the universe of shaytans from among jinn and men, and the varieties of kufr, dhalâlah, sharr and destruction they perpetrate, just as they do not interfere one iota in creation, so too they can have no share in Ilahî sovereignty. And they do not carry out those works through any power or ability; rather than power and action in many of the things they do, it is neglect and abstaining from action. They commit sharrs through not allowing khayr to be done, that is, they become sharr. For since bad and sharr are a sort of destruction, their real and effective causes (‘illah) do not have to be an existent power and active creativity. Rather, vast destruction comes about through one command pertaining to non-existence and one condition being spoilt.” The Flashes (106 )


If you were to ask: Allah (‘Azza wa jalla) is Hakîm and Ghanî, so what is the hikmah of the creation of sharr, ugliness and dhalâlah in the ‘âlam?

You would be told: Know that what is essentially intended in the universe is perfection, khayr and beauty, and they are the pillars and in the majority. As for the sharr, ugliness and deficiencies, if compared with those pillars, they are in the minority and are secondary and dispersed. Their Khâliq created them interspersed among beauty and perfection, not as essentially intended results but as preliminaries of the emergence and existence of the relative haqiqahs of khayr and perfection and as the measures of those haqiqahs.

If you were to ask: What is the importance of the relative haqiqahs that partial sharrs are approved and created for their existence?

You would be told that relative haqiqahs are the ties and bonds between the universe. The order of the universe is also woven with the threads of those haqiqahs. The species in the universe displaying unity, while they are various, and their displaying varying individualities are also the rays reflected from those haqiqahs. Relative haqiqahs are thousands of times more numerous than essential haqiqahs, for if a person’s essential haqiqahs were sevenfold, his relative haqiqahs would be seven hundred. Therefore, a lesser sharr can be forgiven and approved even for the sake of the greater khayr. For to abandon the greater khayr because it has some lesser sharr is a greater sharr. And, in the view of hikmah, if the lesser sharr encounters the greater sharr, the lesser sharr becomes a khayr concerning its results; it is also an established principle in the matters of zakat and jihâd. As is well-known,  اِنَّمَا تُعْرَفُ اْلاَشْيَۤاءُ بِاَضْدَادِهَا2 which means that the existence of a thing's opposite causes the emergence and existence of its relative haqiqahs. For example, if there was no ugliness and it did not permeate beauty, the existence of beauty with its infinite degrees would not emerge.

The Sign of Miraculousness-63


It is most definitely true according to those of sound mind that khayr is essential to creation and sharr is secondary. Khayr is universal and sharr particular. It appears that a science has been formed about each species of ‘âlam and is being formed. The sciences consist of universal laws. The universality of the laws discloses the fine order in that species. That is to say, each science is a faithful witness to the fine order. Yes, universality points to order. For if there is no order in a thing, the rule cannot be in force universally; it will be all awry with numerous exception. It is inductive reasoning and the view of hikmah that pronounces those witness acceptable. But sometimes the order is not visible, for its sphere extends further than can be envisaged and cannot be completely comprehended and conceived of. So the incomparable picture of the order does not reveal itself. In consequence, it is established by the testimony of all sciences and affirmed by inductive reasoning, which is born in the view of hikmah, that it is beauty, khayr, haqq, and perfection that are intended in the creation of ‘âlam and that predominate absolutely. As for sharr, ugliness and bâtil, they are secondary, subordinate, and overwhelmed. If something they transgress, they do so temporarily.” Rational Arguments ( 44 )


If you say: "In the First Topic you proved that everything about Qadar is beautiful and khayr. Even the sharr that comes from it is khayr, and the ugliness, beautiful. But the calamities and tribulations in this world refute that statement."

The Answer: O my nafs and my friend who feel severe pain out of intense compassion! The facts that all virtues and perfections return to existence and that the basis of all rebellion, calamities, and defects is non-existence are proof that existence is pure khayr and non-existence is pure sharr. Since non-existence is pure sharr, circumstances that either result in non-existence or give an inkling of it, also comprise sharr. Therefore, life, the most brilliant nûr of existence, proceeding through different circumstances, finds strength; it encounters varying situations and is purified; it takes on numerous qualities and produces the desired results, and enters many stages and displays comprehensively the embroideries of the Bestower of Life's Names. It is due to this haqiqah that certain things happen to living creatures in the form of griefs, calamities, difficulties and tribulations whereby the nûrs of existence are renewed in their lives, and the darkness of non-existence draws distant and their lives are purified. For arrest, repose, silence, idleness, rest, and monotony are all, both in quality and as conditions, non-existence. Even the greatest pleasure is reduced to nothing by monotony.

In Short: Since life displays the embroideries of Al-Asmâ Al-Husnâ, everything that happens to it is good. For example, an extremely rich and infinitely skilful person who is proficient in many crafts, for an hour and in return for a wage, clothes an ordinary poor man in a bejewelled, artistically fashioned garment. This garment he made in order to make the miserable man act as a model and to display the works of his art and his extensive wealth. He works the garment on the man, gives it various forms, and alters it. In order to display every variety of his art, he cuts it, changes it, and lengthens and shortens it. Can the poor man receiving the wage be justified if he says to the person: "You are giving me trouble. You are making me bow down and stand up. By cutting and shortening this garment which makes me more beautiful, you are spoiling my beauty"? Does he have the right to tell him: "You are acting unkindly and unfairly"? Thus, like him, in order to display the embroideries of His Asmâ Al-Husnâ, As-Sâni’ Zuljalâl, the Peerless Fâtir, alters within numerous circumstances the garment of existence He clothes on living creatures, bejewelled with senses and subtle faculties like eyes, ears, the mind, and the heart. He changes it within very many situations. Among these are circumstances in the form of suffering and calamity which show the decrees of some of His Names, and the rays of rahmah within flashes of hikmah, and the subtle instances of beauty within those rays of rahmah.” The Words (487-488 )


An Allusive Subtle Point

If this universe is paid attention to, it will be seen that within it are two elements that have spread everywhere and become rooted. Khayr and sharr, beauty and ugliness, benefit and harm, perfection and defect, light and dark, hidâyah and dhalâlah, nûr and fire, îmân and kufr, obedience and rebellion and fear and love with their marks and fruits opposites clash with one another in this universe. It becomes a place of manifestation for change and transformation constantly. Its wheels turn like the workshop of the crops of another ‘âlam. Certainly, the branches and results which are opposite of those two elements will go to eternity; they will become concentrated and separate from one another. At that time they will manifest in the form of Jannah and Jahannam. Since al-‘âlam al-baqâ will be made out of this transient ‘âlam, its fundamental elements will certainly go to eternity and permanence.

Yes, Jannah and Jahannam are the two fruits of the branch of the tree of creation, which stretches, inclines and goes towards eternity; they are the two results of the chain of the universe; the two storehouses of this flood of shuûn; the two pools of beings, which flow and surge towards eternity; and two places of the manifestation for favour (lutuf) and wrath (qahr). When the hand of qoudrah shakes up the universe with a violent motion, those two pools will fill up with the appropriate matters.

The secret of this Allusive Subtle Point is as follows:

Through the requirement of eternal ‘inâyah and pre-eternal hikmah, Pre-Eternal Hakîm created this world to be a place of trial, an arena of examination, a mirror to His Asmâ Al-Husnâ, and a page for the pen of His Qadar and Qoudrah. Now, trial and examination are the cause of growth and development. And growth and development cause the disposition to unfold. And this unfolding causes the abilities to become apparent. And this apparentness of the abilities causes the relative haqiqahs to become evident. And the relative haqiqahs’ becoming evident cause the embroideries of the manifestations of As-Sâni’ Zuljalâl's Asmâ Al-Husnâ to be displayed, and the universe to be transformed into a letter of As-Samad. It is through this mystery of examination and the mystery of man's accountability through the obligations placed on him by Allah that the diamond-like essences of elevated rûhs purify and separate from the coal-like matter of base rûhs.

Thus, since Pre-Eternal Hakîm willed ‘âlam in this form for mysteries such as these, and for other most subtle and elevated hikmahs which we do not know, He also willed the change and transformation of this ‘âlam for those hikmahs. He mixed together opposites for change and transformation by hikmah and brought them face to face. He made the universe subject to the law of change and transformation and the principle of transition and perfection through combining harm with benefit, inserting sharr with khayr, and bringing together ugliness and beauty, kneading them together like a dough.

When the time had come that this assembly of examination closed. The time of trial finished. Al-Asmâ Al-Husnâ carried out their decree. The pen of qadar written its letters completely. Qoudrah completed the embroideries of its art. Beings fulfilled their duties. Creatures accomplished their service. Everything stated its meaning. The world cultivated the seedlings of the âkhirah. The earth displayed and exhibited all the miracles of qoudrah and all the wonders of As-Sâni’ Who is Qadîr. This transient ‘âlam attached the tablets which form eternal panoramas to the string of time. The eternal hikmah and pre-eternal ‘inâyah of That Sâni’ Zuljalâl required haqiqahs like the results of that examination, the results of that trial, the haqiqahs of those Asmâ Al-Husnâ's manifestations, the haqiqahs of the letters of the pen of qadar, the originals of those sample-like embroideries of His art, the aims and benefits of those duties of creations, the wages of service of creatures, the haqiqahs of the meanings that the book of the universe’s words stated, the sprouting of the seeds of disposition, the opening of a Supreme Court of Judgement, the display of the mithâlî panoramas taken from this world, the rending of the veil of apparent causes, and the surrendering of everything directly to its Khâliq Zuljalâl. And for the eternal hikmah and pre-eternal ‘inâyah of That Sâni’ Zuljalâl required above haqiqahs, they demanded the purification of those opposites and to separate out the causes of transformation and the matters of conflict in order to deliver the universe from the tiresome transformation and transience, the change and perishment. Certainly, He will corrupt the qiyâmah and purify considering these results.

Thus, as a result of this purification, Jahannam will take an eternal and dreadful form, and its nations will manifest the threat: وَامْتَازُوا الْيَوْمَ اَيُّهَا الْمُجْرِمُونَ3   While Jannah will take an eternal and majestic form, and its people and companions will manifest the address of: سَلاَمٌ عَلَيْكُمْ طِبْتُمْ فَادْخُلُوهَا خَالِدِينَ 4 As is proved in the Second Question of the First Station of the Twenty-Eighth Word, through His perfect qoudrah, the Pre-Eternal Hakîm will give the inhabitants of these two houses eternal and permanent bodies that they will not be subject to dissolution, transformation, old age or extinction. For there will be no cause of transformation, which causes extinction.” The Twenty-Ninth Word/Second Aim/3th Matter


“Yes, the confrontation and interpenetration of khayr and sharr in the universe, and pain and pleasure, light and darkness, heat and cold, beauty and ugliness, and hidâyah and dhalâlah are for a vast instance of hikmah. For if there was no sharr, khayr would not be known. If there was no pain, pleasure would not be understood. Light without darkness would lack all importance. The degrees of heat is realized through the cold. Through ugliness, a single haqiqah of beauty becomes a thousand haqiqahs, and thousands of varying degrees of beauty come into existence. If there was no Jahannam, many of the pleasures of Jannah would remain concealed. By analogy with these, in one respect everything may be known through its opposite and a single haqiqah produce numerous shoots and become numerous haqiqahs. Since these intermingled beings pour from this transitory realm into the eternal realm, surely just as things like khayr, pleasure, light, beauty, and îmân are poured into Jannah; so harmful matters like sharr, pain, darkness, ugliness, and kufr flow into Jahannam, and the floods of this continuously agitated universe are emptied into those two pools.” The Rays ( 252 )


“For all faults arise from non-existence, or lack of ability, or destruction, or the failure to perform duties, which are all non-existence and acts which are not existent and pertain to non-existence. The faults are ascribed to these shaytanic and sharr veils, the objections and complaints are deservedly directed at them, and they are means of Janâb-i Haqq being pronounced free of all defect.

In any event, strength or power is not necessary for sharr destructive works pertaining to non-existence; sometimes extensive non-existence or destruction may occur through some petty act or insignificant power, or even the failure to perform a duty. It is supposed those doers of sharr possess power, but they have no effect other than non-existence and no power other than minor ‘kasb.’ But since the sharrs arise from non-existence, the doers of sharr are the true agents. If they are intelligent beings, they deservedly pay the penalty. That is to say, in evils the perpetrators are the true 'doers,' but since good deeds, khayr and ‘amal as-sâlih are existent, those who 'do' them are not the true 'doers' and do not have an actual effect. They are recipients rather, receiving the Ilahî faydh; Al-Qur’an Al-Hakîm states that their reward too is purely an Ilahî fadl, and says:  مَۤا أَصَابَكَ مِنْ حَسَنَةٍ فَمِنَ اللهِ وَمَۤا أَصَابَكَ مِنْ سَيِّئَةٍ فَمِنْ نَفْسِك   5

In Short: While the universes of existence and the innumerable ‘âlams of non-existence clash, producing fruits like Jannah and Jahannam; and all al-‘âlams of existence declare: "Alhamdulillâh, Alhamdulillâh" and all al-‘âlams of non-existence declare: "Subhânallah, Subhânallah"; and while through an all-encompassing law of contest Malâikah and shaytans, and khayr and sharr, as far as the ilham and waswasa of the heart, all struggle against each other; a fruit of îmân in the Malâikah is suddenly manifested, solving the matter and illuminating the universe. Showing us one of the nûrs of the âyah,  اَللهُ نُورُ السَّمٰوَاتِ وَاْلاَرْضِ6 The Rays ( 282 )


The absolute majority of the Sahabah were at the highest level of human perfections. Because at that time, in the mighty revolution of Islam, khayr and haqq were seen with all their beauty, and sharr and bâtil were seen with all their ugliness, and they both felt physically. Khayr and sharr divided from each other in such a way and such a distance opened between sidq and falsehood that their gap became distant from one another as much as îmân and kufr, rather, Jahannam and Jannah. The Sahabah, who by fitrah possessed elevated feelings, were captivated by the highest morality and inclined toward dignity and glory, would not willingly stretch out their hands to falsehood and sharr and fall to the pit of Musaylima the Liar since he and his ridiculous words are the herald and representative of bâtil, sharr and falsehood. Their character necessitates looking to the rank of Habibullah (asm) at the level of the perfections of a’lâ ‘illiyyin, who is the herald and representative of sidq, khayr and haqq, and running there with all their strength and endeavour.

For example, it sometimes happens that in the market of human civilization and the shop of social life, everyone is disgusted by the fearsome results and ugly consequences of certain things like fatal poison and flees from them with all their strength, let alone buying them, while the beautiful results and valuable consequences of other certain things and ma’nawî goods attract everyone’s view and demand themselves like a beneficial panacea and a diamond; everyone works their utmost to buy them. In just the same way, in the Era of Bliss, in the market of the social life of mankind, since materials like falsehood, sharr and kufr give results like eternal misery and lowly laughingstocks like Musaylima the Liar, it is certain and clear that the Sahabah, who were captivated by exalted moral qualities and the love of elevated things, would flee from and loathe them like fatal poison. And it is necessary that, like a most profitable panacea and precious diamond, with all their strength, feelings and subtle faculties, the Sahabah, whose fitrah is pure and moral is praiseworthy, would be desirous of and customers for sidq, haqq and iman, which yield results like eternal happiness and luminous fruits like Ar-Rasûl Al-Akram ‘Alayhissalatu Wassalâm. However, after that time, the distance between sidq and falsehood diminished gradually and slowly; they became shoulder to shoulder. They begin to be sold together in the same shop, and social morality has become corrupted, too. The propaganda of politics has caused a greater demand for lying. At a time when the terrible ugliness of lying has begun to be concealed and the shining beauty of truthfulness has begun not to be seen, who can reach the strength, firmness and taqwâ of the Sahabah in the matters of justice, sidq, exaltedness and haqq or surpass their level?

Addendum to The Twenty-Seventh Word


“that since life's two faces are transparent and unsullied, apparent causes have not been made a veil to the disposals of Rabbânî Qoudrah.

Yes, the mystery of this property is as follows: for sure in everything in the universe, there is beauty, goodness and khayr, while sharr and ugliness are very minor, with the function of being units of measurement and to show the degrees of good and beauty and to augment and multiply their haqiqahs. In this way, the sharr becomes khayr and the ugliness, beauty. But so that the complaints and anger arising from what are to the superficial view of conscious beings apparently ugliness, badness, disasters, and calamities should not be directed to Al-Hayy Al-Qayyûm, and so that the contact of sacred, pure qoudrah with apparently vile and filthy things should not offend the dignity of qoudrah, apparent causes have been made a veil to those disposals of qoudrah. The causes cannot create but have been placed in order to be the target of unjust complaints and objections and to preserve the dignity, sacredness, and unblemished nature of qoudrah.

….dignity and grandeur require that causes are curtain-holders to the Hand of Qoudrah in the mind's view, while Wahdah and Jalâl demand that causes draw back their hands from the true effect.” The Flashes ( 429 )


“If one who starts a movement in human social life does not act in conformity with the fitrah laws in the universe, he cannot be successful in beneficial and progressive works. All his actions become on account of sharr and destruction.The Flashes ( 225)


“I swear with all my strength and if I possessed them, with innumerable tongues; we swear  by Al-Hakîm Zuljalâl, As-Sâni’ Zuljamâl, Who creates the ‘âlam with this perfect order, and the universe, from particles to the planets, from the wing of a fly to the lamps of the samâwât, with an infinite hikmah of regularity with those innumerable tongues, that it is in no way possible for mankind to eat and digest the zaqqûm7 which, in thousands of years, caused the predomination of the sharr to the khayr due to opposing the order in the universe through their universal sharrs, in contrast to other species which are their small brothers and contrary to all other sorts of the universe.

The possibility of it can only occur by supposing the impossible, that, although man is at the degree of supreme trust (Amanah al-kubra) in this ‘âlam, he has the rank of khalîfah of the earth, and is a great and honoured brother to the other species of the universe, he was the lowest, most base, most wretched, most harmful and most insignificant, and as a consequence had stealthily entered the universe and disordered it. This impossibility can in no way be accepted.

This half proof of us for this haqiqah leads to this conclusion that just as the necessarly existence of Jannah and Jahannam in the âkhirah, so too the religion of khayr and haqq will absolutely prevail in the future. So that khayr and fadhîlah will also be absolutely victorious over mankind like other species. In order that mankind be equal to their other brothers in the universe and it may be said that the mystery of pre-eternal hikmah is also established in mankind.

In Short: As the definite haqiqahs mentioned above demonstrates that the selected result of the universe and the most important creature in the view of Al-Khâliq is man.  And as the brutal state of man up to this time certainly and evidently necessitates the existence of Jahannam in eternal life, so do his universal perfect disposition and the haqiqahs of his îmân that are related to the universe certainly and evidently necessitate Jannah in eternal life. Most certainly, man will not digest the crime of turning a thousand-year progress upside-down and causing mankind to fall in the most wretched due to his crimes which make the universe weep and due to his situation of dirtying the whole face of the earth by vomiting the zaqqûm sharrs he swallowed and did not digest. Most certainly, if an early qiyâmah does not occur over his head, we beseech from the rahmah of Al-Arham Ar-Râhimîn that the haqiqahs of Islam will be the means of saving man from the degree of decline of asfal sâfilîn, of cleansing the face of the earth, and securing universal peace, and we await it with hope.” The Damascus Sermon (41-42)


“On the previous âyah making it clear that humankind is the aim of creation and that man has a high place in his Khâliq's sight, the listener is moved to ask: "How can man be worthy when he perpetrates so much sharr and corruption? Does hikmah necessitate his existence, to ‘ibâdah and sanctify Taâ’lâ?" So this âyah implies that on account of the mystery being deposited in him, his sharrs and iniquities are forgiven, and that Allâh stands in no need of man's ‘ibâdah, for some of the Malâikah sanctify Him and tasbîh Him with praises beyond number. [Man's creation therefore] is for some hikmah known only to ‘Allâm al-Ghuyub.” Signs of Miraculousness ( 265 )


If you were to ask: So it is conformable with justice, but what about hikmah, which is exempt from creating sharrs that result in punishment?

You would be told: As you have heard before, a greater khayr should not be abandoned due to the interspersion of lesser sharr, for that would be a greater sharr. This is because Ilahî hikmah necessitates the existence of relative haqiqahs, which are far more numerous than actual truths; and their appearance is possible only through the existence of sharr; and sharr can be held within its limits and prevented from its aggression only through intimidation; and intimidation only truly affects the conscience if it [can be] verified and actualized by the existence of external torment; for like the mind (aql) and wahm, the conscience is truly affected by intimidation only if it perceives from various indications the eternal, external reality of torment. It is pure hikmah therefore after filling people with fear at Jahannam in this world, for it to exist in the âkhirah.

If you were to ask: So it is consistent with hikmah also, but how does Ilahî compassion permit it?

You would be told: The kâfirs can be thought of only in terms of non-existence or existence in torment. If you think it over in your conscience [you will understand that] existence, even if in Jahannam, is a rahmah and better than non-existence. For if you analyze it carefully [you will see that] non-existence is pure sharr; indeed, non-existence is the source of all calamities and sins. Whereas existence is pure khayr, even if in Jahannam. Furthermore, it is in the rûh’s fitrah, if it knows that the torment eliminates its crimes and sins, to be content with it, to alleviate the burden of shame. It will then acknowledge that the punishment is fair and that it deserves it. Out of its love of justice, it receives pleasure from it even. Many honourable people in this world long for the execution of justice on themselves so as to be saved from the shame of their crimes.

[The kâfirs] go to Jahannam and abide there forever as their perpetual abode, but after some time paying the penalty for their actions they grow accustomed to it in a way and will be imprinted on them, even if they do not deserve this. Also, their punishments are reduced and mitigated in many ways in recompense for their khayr deeds in this world, as is indicated in some Hadiths. These are instances of rahmah for them, although they are not worthy of them.” Signs of Miraculousness ( 88 )


“One time in the desert, a man was the guest of a nomad who was one of the people of haqiqah. He saw that the desert-dwellers did not concern themselves with guarding their belongings. His host had even left some money openly in the corner of the room. The guest asked him:

-“Aren't you frightened of thieves, just throwing your belongings in the corner like that?"

-His host answered: "We do not have any thieves here."

-The guest said: "We put our money in safes and lock them, but it is still frequently stolen."

-His host told him: "We cut off the hands of thieves as an Ilahî command and on account of the justice of the Sharî’ah."

-Whereupon the guest exclaimed: "Then most of you must be lacking a hand!"

-His host told him: "I am fifty years old, and yet in my whole life I have only seen one person with their hand cut off."

-The guest was ashamed and said: "Although every day in my country we put fifty people in prison for theft, it does not have one-hundredth of the effectiveness of your justice here."

The host said: "You have fallen in ghaflah and abandoned a great haqiqah, a strange and powerful mystery, as a result of that, you lost the haqiqah of justice. In place of the general good, under an apparent justice, hatred and vicious and partisan currents intervene, destroying the effect of the judgements. The mystery of that haqiqah is as follows: With us, the moment a thief stretches out his hand to seize another's property, he recalls the punishment of the Sharî’ah. The command revealed from the Ilahî ‘arsh comes to his mind. Through the sense of îmân and ear of the heart, he as though hears the âyah that was revealed from the pre-eternal Kalâm:اَلسَّارِقُ وَ السَّارِقَةُ فَاقْطَعُوا اَيْدِيَهُمَا 8 which calls for "the execution of the thief's hand," and his îmân, belief and elevated feelings are stirred into action. From around his rûh and the depths of his conscience a state of rûh is given rise to which as though attacks the inclination to steal. The inclination, which arises from the nafs and lust, is stifled and recedes; by degrees it is completely extinguished. For not only the thought and wahm, but also the ma’nawî faculties- the mind, heart, and conscience- together attack that desire and feeling. By recalling the punishment of the Sharî’ah the thief's conscience restrains and prohibits him, confronting that desire and silencing it.

Yes, îmân places in the heart and mind a permanent 'ma’nawî prohibitor;' when sinful inclinations emerge from the feelings and nafs, it repulses them, declaring: "it is forbidden!"

Man's actions result from the inclinations of his heart and feelings. Those inclinations come from the sensibilities of the rûh and its needs. The rûh is stirred into action through the nûr of îmân. If an act is khayr, he does it; if it is sharr, he tries to restrain himself. Blind feelings will not drive him down the wrong road and defeat him.

In Short: When the punishments are carried out in the name of the Ilahî commands and Rabbânî justice, both the rûh, and the mind, and the conscience, and man's subtle faculties in his essence are affected and influenced. It is for this reason that the execution of a punishment once in fifty years is more effective than your imprisoning numerous people every day. Your penalties affect only your wahm, for when one of you decides to steal something, suffering a penalty on account of the country and nation and its benefits seems imaginary; or he thinks others will condemn him if they know about it; or it occurs to him that if it turns out unfavourably the government will send him to prison. So only his quwwa al-wâhimah feels minor discomfort. And the powerful inclination issuing from his nafs and feelings -particularly if he is needy as well- will overpower him. Then the penalty will be ineffective in making him refrain from committing the bad deed. Anyway, because they are not an Ilahî command, the penalties are not justice. They are vain and futile like performing the salâh without taking wudû and not facing the qibla. That is to say, true justice and effective penalties are those which are in the name of Allah’s command. Others can have only a minimal effect.

Other universal and all-embracing Ilahî injunctions may be compared with this small question of theft, so that it may be understood that man's happiness and well-being in this world are possible only through justice. As for justice, it can be achieved only through direct application of the way shown by the Qur'an.” The Damascus Sermon ( 68 )


“Since the merit increases proportionately to the hardships, we should offer shukr for these conditions. We should try to perform our duties of serving îmân with ikhlas, which is our duty, and not concern ourselves with being successful or obtaining khayr results, which is Allah's concern. We should say: خَيْرُ اْلاُمُورِ اَحْمَزُهَا 9 and patiently offer shukr in the face of our difficulties in this place of trial. We should understand that it is a sign of the acceptability of our actions and a diploma for having passed the examination of our sacred jihâd.” The Rays ( 478 )


“Since we have surrendered ourselves to qadar and with the mystery of  خَيْرُ اْلاُمُورِ اَحْمَزُهَا 10 in terms of great merit, we consider these difficulties to be a ma’nawî ni’mah; and since the outcome of these fleeting worldly calamities in most cases ends with relief and is khayr; and since we have absolute certain belief at the degree of haqqalyaqîn that, we have dedicated our lives to such a haqiqah that it is brighter than the sun and as beautiful as Jannah and sweet as eternal happiness. Certainly, since “we are performing a ma’nawî jihâd” in an upright and thankful manner with these hardships, it is necessary that we do not complain.

My ‘Azîz Brothers! Our first and final advice to you is to preserve your solidarity, keep away from ananiyyah, selfishness and rivalry and practice caution and self-restraint.

Said Nursî

Biography (456)


اَللّٰهُمَّ اَرِنَا الْحَقَّ حَقًّا وَ ارْزُقْنَا اِتِّبَاعَهُ وَ اَرِنَا الْبَاطِلَ بَاطِلاً وَ ارْزُقْنَا اِجْتِنَابَهُ آمِينَ

هَدَينَا اللّٰهُ وَ اِيَّاكُمْ اِلَى الصِّرَاطِ الْمُسْتَقِيمِ

سُبْحَانَكَ لاَ عِلْمَ لَنَا اِلاَّ مَا عَلَّمْتَنَا اِنَّكَ اَنْتَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ

1 “It elucidates one mystery of the âyah:  اَحْسَنَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقَهُ (It is He Who has given the best form to everything that He has created.) It is as follows:

In everything, even the things, which appear to be the ugliest, there is an aspect of true beauty. Yes, everything in the universe, every event is either beautiful in its essence, which is called 'beauty in essence', or it is beautiful concerning its results, which is called 'consequent beauty'. There are certain events to the outward appearance they are ugly and confused, but beneath that exterior veil, there are extremely shining beauties and orders.

For instance: In the season of spring, beneath the veil of stormy rains and muddy soil, the smiles of infinite beautiful flowers and well-ordered plants are hidden, and behind the harsh devastation and the veils of sorrowful separations of the season of autumn, in order to preserve delicate tiny animals, the friends of the coy flowers, from the pressure and torments of winter events, which are the place of manifestation of Subhân’s Jalâl, together with discharging them from the duty of life, it is to prepare a place for the delicate, fresh and beautiful spring under the veil of winter.

There is the unfolding of numerous ma’nawî flowers, which hide beneath the veil of events like storms, earthquakes and epidemics. Many kernels of disposition, which have not developed and grown like seeds, sprout and become beautiful due to the events exteriorly ugly. As though all transformations and universal alterations are ma’nawî rains. But since man both performs ‘ibâdah to the external of things and is self-conceited, he judges them to be ugly by looking to the exterior. Regarding his self-conceitedness, he judges it to be sharr through reasoning according to the result that only looks to himself. Whereas, if one of the aims of things belongs to man, thousands of them belong to their Sâni's Names.

For example, he accepts thorned plants and trees, which are among the great miracles of Al-Fâtir's Qoudrah, to be detrimental and meaningless. But, they are the equipped heroes of the grasses and trees. For example, hawks assaulting sparrows is apparently incompatible with rahmah. But, the sparrow's disposition unfolds through this assault. For example, they consider the snow to be very chilly and insipid. But, beneath that chilly, insipid veil, there are aims so warm and results so sweet as sugar that cannot be described. Also, since man is self-conceited and performs ‘ibâdah to the external of things, and also reasons everything according to the face that looks to him, he supposes many things that are pure courtesy (adab) to be contrary to courtesy (adab). For example, in human's view, the discussion of the human reproductive organ is shameful. But this veil of shame is on the face looking man. Otherwise, the faces that look to creation, art and the aims of fitrah are such veils that if they are looked at with the eye of hikmah, they are mere courtesy (adab); shame does not touch them at all.

Thus, certain expressions of Al-Qur’an Al-Hakîm, the source of courtesy (adab), are in accordance with these faces and veils. Beneath the exterior faces of ugly creatures and events which appear to us, there is art with hikmah that is extremely beautiful and very beautiful faces looking to their creation, they look to their Sâni’, and there are many beautiful veils, they conceal hikmahs, and there are numerous exteriorly disorderliness and confusion, they are the most regular sacred inscription.

The Eighteenth Word

2 (Things are known through their opposites)

3 (O you guilty ones! Get you apart this Day! Qur’an 36:59)

4 (Salâmun Alaykum! Well have you done! Enter here to dwell forever.)

5 (Whatever good happens to you is from Allah but whatever evil befalls you is from your nafs.)

6 (Allah is the nûr of the samâwât and the earth)

7 (A certain tree of Jahannam mentioned in the Qur'an. The food for the people of Jahannam. Any noxious or very unpleasant food. The oleander)

8 (As to the thief, male or female, cut off his or her hand)

9 (The khayr of matters are the most difficult) 

10 (The khayr of matters are the most difficult)

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