اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ وَ الصَّلاَةُ وَ السَّلاَمُ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ وَ عَلَى آلِهِ وَ صَحْبِهِ اَجْمَعِينَ
AL-‘ADL - العدل
“Al-ism al-â’dham is not the same for everyone; it differs. For example, concerning Imam ‘Ali (ra) it was the six Names of Al-Fard, Al-Hayy, Al-Qayyûm, Al-Hakam, Al-‘Adl and Al-Quddûs. And Imam al-Â’dham’s1 ism al-â’dham was two Names; Al-Hakam and Al-‘Adl. And Ghawth al- Â’dham’s2 ism al-â’dham was Al-Hayy. And Imam Ar-Rabbani’s ism al-â’dham was Al-Qayyûm, and so on; many other people considered Al-ism al-â’dham to be different Names.” The Thirtieth Flash/The Fifth Point/Conclusion
وَاِنْ مِنْ شَيْءٍ اِلاَّ عِنْدَنَا خَزَائِنُهُ وَمَا نُنَزِّلُهُ اِلاَّ بِقَدَرٍ مَعْلُومٍ3
One subtle point of this âyah and one manifestation of the Name ‘Adl, which is an Ism al-â’dham or one of the six nûrs of Ism al-â’dham, appeared to me from afar in Eskisehir Prison like the First Subtle Point. In order to bring it closer, we say the following through the way of comparison again:
This universe is such a palace that within it is a city continually shaken amid devastation and repairment. And within that city is a country brewing amid war and emigration every time. And within that country is an ‘âlam revolving amid death and life all the time. Whereas, such an equilibrium, balance and equilibration, which raise astonishment, rule over that palace, city, country and ‘âlam; it self-evidently proves that the alteration, incomings and outgoings that occur in these infinite beings are measured and weighed by the balance of a Single One Who sees the whole universe every moment and considers it with His investigating look. If there be not, if causes had been strayed, which want to invade and try to destroy the equilibrium severely by the assault of changes and the elements flowing like floods and by a fish among fishes with its thousand eggs, a flower among plants like a poppy with its twenty thousand seeds, or if they had been referred to aimless, vagrant coincidence and unbalanced, blind forces and unconscious, dark nature, the equilibrium of things and universe would have been so destroyed that within a year, rather within a day, they would have been fall into turmoil. That is, the seas would have been filled with messy things and would have become fetid from decay; the air would have been poisoned with detrimental gases; as for the earth, it would have turned into a refuse-heap, slaughterhouse and swamp. The world would have suffocated.
Thus, everything from the cells of the body of an animal, the red and white corpuscles in the blood, the transformations of particles and the mutual relation and proportion of the body's organs, to the incomings and outgoings of the seas… to the income and expenditure of springs under the earth… to the birth and death of animals and plants… to the destruction of autumn and the reconstruction of spring… to the duties and motions of the elements and the stars… to the alternations, struggles and clashes of death and life, light and darkness and heat and cold are ordered and weighed with such a sensitive balance, such a fine measure that the mind of man sees nowhere any real waste or futility; the science and philosophy of man see everywhere and show the most perfect order and the most beautiful equilibrium. Indeed, the science and philosophy of man are a manifestation and interpreter of that order and equilibrium.
Now, come and look to the equilibrium between the sun and the miscellaneous twelve planets. I wonder, does this equilibrium not show the Zuljalâl One Who is ‘Adl and Qadîr as clearly as the sun? And especially our ship that is the globe of the earth, which is one of the planets, in one year, it wanders and travels on a sphere of twenty-four thousand years. Despite its extraordinary speed, it does not scatter or shake the things stowed and arranged on its face, nor throw them off into space. If its speed had been increased or reduced just a little, it would have thrown its inhabitants off into the atmosphere and scattered them through space. And if it destroys its equilibrium for a minute or even a second, it will destroy our world; rather, it will clash with another and cause the qiyâmah.
And especially the compassionate equilibrium on the face of the earth of the births, deaths, livelihoods and lives of the four hundred thousand plant and animal species shows a single ‘Adl and Rahîm One as the light shows the sun.
And especially the members, organs and senses of a single individual of the innumerable individuals of those nations are related to and balanced with each other with such a fine balance that their mutual relation and proportion and equilibrium show a Sâni’ Who is ‘Adl and Hakîm so clearly as to be self-evident.
And especially the cells and blood vessels in the body of each individual of the animals, the corpuscles in the blood and particles in those corpuscles have such a fine, sensitive and wondrous equilibrium that it self-evidently proves that they are being tarbiyyah and administered through the balance, law and order of a single Khâliq, Who is ‘Adl and Hakîm, in Whose hands are the reins of all things, Who has the key of all things, for Whom nothing is an obstacle to another and Who administers all things as easily as a single thing. If someone who does not believe the deeds of jinn and men being weighed up, on the supreme balance of justice, at the great court of resurrection, by deeming it remote notes carefully this great equilibrium that he sees in this world with his own eyes, he will no longer deem it remote.
O wasteful, wrongful, unjust.. dirty, unclean.. wretched man lacking frugality (iqtisâd)! Since you do not practice frugality, cleanliness and justice, which are the principle of the whole universe and all beings for their actions, by your opposition to all beings, you become the object of their disgust and anger in a ma’nawî manner. On what do you rely that you make all beings angry by your dhulm, imbalance, wastefulness and uncleanliness?
Yes, the universal hikmah of the universe, which is one of the greatest manifestations of the Name Hakîm, acts on frugality and lack of waste; it commands frugality. And the justice in the universe, which is free from any kind of deficiency and which arises from the greatest manifestation of the Name ‘Adl, administers the balance of all things and commands justice to mankind as well. Mentioning the word 4 مِيزَانِ four times in these âyahs of Surah al-Rahmân, 5 وَالسَّمَاءَ رَفَعَهَا وَوَضَعَ الْمِيزَانَ اَلاَّ تَطْغَوْا فِى الْمِيزَانِ وَاَقِيمُوا الْوَزْنَ بِالْقِسْطِ وَلاَ تُخْسِرُوا الْمِيزَانَ , which indicate four degrees and four sorts of balance, shows the degree of immensity and the extraordinary great importance of the balance in the universe. Yes, there is not only wastefulness in anything, but there is no true dhulm and imbalance in anything as well. And the cleansing and cleanliness arising from the greatest (â’dham) manifestation of the Name Quddûs clean and make beautiful all the beings in the universe. So long as mankind's dirty hand does not interfere, true uncleanliness or ugliness is not seen in anything.
So, understand, in the life of mankind, how essential principles are justice, frugality and cleanliness, which are among the haqiqahs of the Qur'an and the principles of Islam. And know to what degree the injunctions of the Qur'an are connected with the universe and spread and entwine their roots within the universe, and know that it is impossible to destroy those haqiqahs like it is impossible to destroy the universe and change its form.
Although hundreds of all-encompassing haqiqahs like these three greatest lights, such as rahmah, ‘inâyah and hafîdhiyyah, require and necessitate the resurrection and the âkhirah, is it at all possible that so powerful and all-encompassing haqiqahs like rahmah, ‘inâyah, justice, hikmah, frugality and cleanliness, which govern in the universe and all beings, may transform into mercilessness, dhulm, lack of hikmah, wastefulness, uncleanliness and futility through there being no âkhirah and the resurrection not being brought? Hâsha, a hundred thousand times, Hâsha!
I wonder, would a rahmah and hikmah that compassionately preserve the rights of life of a fly destroy the infinite rights of life of all conscious beings and the infinite rights of infinite beings by not bringing the resurrection? And if one may say so, would the majesty of rubûbiyyah displaying infinite sensitivity and care in rahmah and compassion and justice and hikmah, and the sovereignty of ulûhiyyah adorning this universe with His infinite wondrous arts and ni’mahs in order to display His perfections and make Himself known and loved permit there to be no resurrection, which would reduce all of His perfections and His creatures to nothing, and make them denied? Hâshâ! Such an absolute beauty (Jamâl) evidently would not permit such an absolute ugliness.
Yes, a man who wants to deny the âkhirah must first deny all the world with all its haqiqahs. Otherwise, the world with all its haqiqahs will prove his falsity a hundred thousand times in this lie of his, by pronouncing him to be false with a hundred thousand tongues. The Tenth Word proves with certain evidences that the existence of the âkhirah is as definite and indubitable as the existence of the world.
And since the numerous works, ma’nawî aspects and fruits of this world, and the fabrics of the deeds, pages of the acts and the rûhs and bodies of those who are responsible to Allah for acts and beliefs like jinn and human beings are sent to the market of the âkhirah. Certainly, the particles of the earth, which accompany and serve those fruits and meanings, after gaining a perfection befitting themselves in point of the duty, that is, after many times serving to and being the place of manifestation for the nûr of life and after being the means for the tasbîhât pertaining to life, it is a requirement of justice (‘adl) and hikmah to include in the construction of the other ‘âlam those particles amid the debris of this world that will be destroyed. And from this haqiqah, the tip of the mighty “Law of Justice (‘Adl)” becomes apparent.
The Thirtieth Word-The Second Aim-Third Point
“There are levels in the love for Janâb-i Haqq's Names. As we explained above, sometimes the Names are loved in a manner of love for finely made objects. Sometimes they are loved as being titles of the Ilahî perfections. Sometimes, man is needy and desirous of the Names by reason of the comprehensiveness of his reality together with his having endless needs. It is through those needs that he loves.
For example, if someone was to come forward and do a kindness -as you want- to all your relations, and the poor, the weak and the needy, for all of whom you feel compassion although you feel the need of help impotently, how that person's title of “granting ni’mahs” and the name of “generous” would please you, how you would love that person through that title.
So too, think only of Janâb-i Haqq's Names of Rahmân and Rahîm. Since these names make happy all the mu’min fathers and forefathers, relations and friends whom you love and feel compassion for, in this world by means of all kinds of ni’mahs, and in Jannah by means of all kinds of delights and they cause happiness by showing them to you in eternal bliss, and Himself to them in eternal bliss too. So how deserving of being loved is the Name of Rahman and the title of Rahîm. And you can see for yourself just how needy for those two Names is the human rûh. And you can understand just how appropriate is the phrase, اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ عَلَى رَحْمَانِيَّتِهِ وَ عَلَى رَحِيمِيَّتِهِ 6
And also a sort of your house and the creatures in it which you are connected to and afflicted by their wretchedness; if you consider carefully, you may understand just how needy and desirous is your rûh for the Name of “Hakîm” and for the title of “Murabbi”, the One Who orders, regulates and does tarbiyyah with perfect hikmah the world and the creatures within it, which are like its familiar equipment and lovable adornments of your home.
And also if you consider carefully, you may understand just how needy is your rûh for the Names of Wârith and Bâ‘ith, and for the titles Bâqî, Karim, Muhyî, and Muhsin of the One Who saves human beings who you are altogether connected to and grieve when they die, at the time of their death from the darkness of non-existence and establishes them in a far finer place than this world.
Thus, since man's reality is exalted and his fitrah comprehensive, he is, by his very fitrah, needy with thousands of different sorts of needs for the innumerable Ilahî Names, each of which has many degrees. The intensified need is longing. The intensified longing is love. And intensified love is ‘ashq. As the rûh is perfected, the degrees of love unfold according to the degrees of the Names. Furthermore, since the Names are the titles and manifestations of the One of Zuljalâl, love of them will be transformed into the love of the Ilahî Essence.
Now, just as an example, we shall explain one of the thousand and one degrees of the Names of ‘Adl, Hakam, Haqq, and Rahîm from a thousand and one Names. For example, if you wish to see the Names of Rahmân Ar-Rahîm, and Haqq within hikmah and justice (‘adl) to the utmost extent, consider the following comparison. Let us suppose there is an army in which there are four hundred different sections. And the uniforms that each section prefers are different, the rizqs that please them, the weapons they will carry with ease and the medicines to cure their particular ills are all different. Furthermore, rather than being separated into squads and companies, they are all intermingled.
If the peerless and single sultân, then, out of perfect compassion and solicitude, wonderful power, miraculous ‘ilm and all-embracing, extraordinary justice and hikmah, without confusing or forgetting any of them were himself, in person, without helper, to give all of them their completely different though appropriate uniforms, rizqs, medicines and weapons, would you not see what a powerful, solicitous, just and generous personage that sultân was. Because, if there were individuals from ten nations in one battalion, it would be extremely difficult to clothe and equip them all differently. Whatever people they were from they would of necessity have to be fitted out in the same way.
Similarly, if you wish to see the manifestation of the Names of Haqq and Rahmân Ar-Rahîm within the justice (‘adl) and hikmah of Janâb-i Haqq, look at the plant and animal armies comprising four hundred thousand magnificent nations with their tents pitched on the face of the earth in springtime. For those groups and sections are all one within the other. And the uniform of each one is different, and the rizqs, weapons, way of life, drill and demobilization are all different. Furthermore, they do not have the power to provide for those needs and the tongues to ask for those wishes. So, watch and see the titles of Haqq, Rahmân, Razzâq, Rahîm and Karîm together with order and balance within the sphere of hikmah and justice (‘adl). See how, without confusing, obscuring or forgetting any of them, He does tarbiyyah, regulates and administers them all.
Could another hand, therefore, interfere in a matter performed with such amazing and all-encompassing order and balance? What, apart from Al-Wâhid Who is Ahad, Absolutely Hakîm, and Qadîr over all things, could even stretch out its hand towards this art, this organizing, this rubûbiyyah, this administering? What cause could interfere?” The Words ( 671-673 )
“Also, since we see before our eyes that the hand of hikmah works on all creatures and on the face of the earth and works are performed with the measures of such justice, the human mind cannot think beyond it. For example, a pre-eternal hikmah that writes man’s entire life-story and the numerous events, which touch on him, in his faculty of memory as tiny as a seed one of the hikmahs that are attached to man’s thousands of faculties, and makes it a library, and gives it to each human’s hand and places it in the pocket of his mind by the mystery of reminding him continuously as a proof for the notebook of his actions which will be published for his judgement at the resurrection. And an eternal justice that places on all creatures with art their members with extremely delicate balance; and makes the skilful creatures -from the microbe to the rhinoceros, and the fly to the simurgh bird, and from a flowering plant to the flower of the spring, which opens thousands of millions of flowers- a beauty of art within a mutual proportion with the wasteless measures and within balance, order and beauty; and gives all living creatures their rights of life with perfect balance, and makes goodness produce good results and badnesses, bad results; and since the time of Âdam it has made itself felt forcefully through the blows it has dealt rebellious and dhâlim tribes. Certainly and without doubt, just as the sun cannot be without the day so that pre-eternal hikmah and eternal justice cannot be without the âkhirah and would never permit the terrible consequenceless inequity, injustice and being without hikmah in the oppressed and dhâlim passing equally. So that the Names of Hakîm and Hakam, ‘Adl and ‘Âdil decisively answer our question.” The Eleventh Ray-The Seventh Matter
“Just as the body relies on the rûh and subsists through it and has life through it, and a word looks to the meaning and is illuminated by it, and form relies on haqiqah and acquires value through it; in exactly the same way this corporeal and material ‘âlam ash-shahâdah is a body, a word, a form which relies on the Ilahî Names behind the veil of al-‘âlam al-ghayb, receiving life and vitality from them; it looks to them, and is beautified. All the instances of physical beauty proceed from the ma’nawî beauties of their own haqiqahs and meanings; and as for their haqiqahs, they receive faydh from the Ilahî Names and are shadows of them of a sort. And this haqiqah is proved decisively in the Risale-i Nur.
This means that all the varieties and sorts of beauty in the universe are the signs, marks, and manifestations -by means of names- of a faultless, incorporeal beauty (jamâl) which is manifested from behind al-‘âlam al-ghayb. However, since Al-Wâjib Al-Wujûd's Most Pure and Holy Essence (Zhât Al-Aqdas) resembles absolutely nothing at all and His attributes are infinitely superior to the attributes of contingent beings, His sacred beauty (jamâl) also does not resemble the beauties of creatures and contingent beings, and is infinitely more exalted. Certainly, an everlasting beauty one manifestation of which is vast Jannah together with all its exquisiteness and beauty, and one hour's witnessing (mushahada) of which makes the inhabitants of Jannah oblivious to Jannah, cannot be finite, nor have any like, equal or peer.
It is clear that the beauties of a thing are in accordance with itself; and there are thousands of sorts of beauties which all differ according to the different sorts of beings. For example, beauty perceived by the eye is not the same as something beautiful heard with the ears, and a beauty pertains to mind comprehended by the mind is not the same as the beauty of food relished by the tongue; so too, the beauties appreciated and perceived as beautiful by the rûh, heart and other external and inner senses are all different like the difference of them. For example, the beauty of îmân, the beauty of haqiqah, the beauty of nûr, the beauty of a flower, the beauty of rûh, and the beauties of form, compassion, justice, kindness, and hikmah. Similarly, since the utter and infinite beauties of Al-Asmâ Al-Husnâ of Al-Jamîl Zuljalâl are all different, the beauties in beings also differ.
If you want to witness one manifestation of the beauties of Al-Jamîl Zuljalâl's Names in the mirrors of beings, take a look with a gazing, wide, imaginative eye at the face of the earth supposing it to be a small garden and know; the terms like rahmâniyyah, rahîmiyyah, hakîmiyyah, and ‘âdiliyyah allude to both the names, and acts, and attributes, and shuûn of Janâb-i Haqq.
Observe the rizq of foremost man and of all living creatures, which arrives regularly from behind the veil of the ghayb, and see the beauty (jamâl) of Ilahî rahmâniyyah.
Then consider the miraculous sustenance of all young, and the two pumps of milk hanging over their heads on the breasts of their mothers, as sweet and pure as the water of Kawthar, and see the captivating beauty (jamâl) of Rabbânî rahîmiyyah.
Then observe the peerless beauty (jamâl) of Ilahî hakîmiyyah, which makes the whole universe into a mighty book of hikmah every letter of which contains a hundred words, and every word of which contains a hundred lines, and every line of which contains a thousand chapters, and every chapter of which contains hundreds of small books.
Then see the imperious beauty of an ‘âdiliyyah which holds the whole universe and all its beings in balance; and maintains the balance of all the heavenly bodies, lofty and lowly; and supplies symmetry and proportion, the most important elements of beauty; and causes everything to acquire the optimum state; and gives the right to life to living beings, and ensures that their rights are preserved; and halts and punishes aggressors.
Then consider the inscription of man's life story in his memory, as tiny as a grain of wheat, and the programmes of the second lives of all plants and trees in their seeds; and the members and faculties necessary for the defence of living beings, for instance, bees' wings and their poisonous stings, and the small bayonets of thorned plants, and the hard shells of seeds; and see the hâfidhiyyah and subtle beauty (jamâl) of Rabbânî hâfidhiyyah.
Then consider the guests at the table of the earth of Ar-Rahmân Ar-Rahîm, Who is absolutely Karîm, and the pleasant smells of the numberless different foods prepared by rahmah, and their beautiful and various colours, and their delicious and differing tastes, and the organs and members of all living creatures which assist their pleasure and enjoyment; and see the exceedingly pleasant beauty and sweet jamâl of Rabbânî bestowal and karîmiyyah.
Then consider the meaningful forms of foremost man and of all living creatures, which are opened up from droplets of fluid through the manifestation of the Names of Fattâh and Musawwir, and the attractive faces of the flowers of spring opened up from seeds and tiny nuclei; and see the miraculous jamâl of Ilahî fattâhiyyah and musawwiriyyah.
Thus, by analogy with these examples, each of Al-Asmâ Al-Husnâ has a sacred jamâl particular to it a single manifestation of which makes beautiful the vast ‘âlam and innumerable species of beings. You may see the manifestation of a Name's jamâl in a single flower; the spring is also a flower; Jannah is a flower yet unseen. If you can visualize the whole of spring and see Jannah with the eye of îmân, look and see. Understand the utter majesty of everlasting jamâl. If you respond to that Beauty with the beauty of îmân and jamâl of ‘ubûdiyyah, you will be a most beautiful creature.
While if you meet it with the boundless ugliness of dhalâlah and loathsomeness of rebellion, you will be both an ugliest creature and will in a ma’nawî manner be loathed by all beautiful creatures.” The Rays ( 85-88 )
اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ عَلَى نِعْمَةِ اْلاِيمَانِ ٭ رَبَّنَا لاَ تُؤَاخِذْنَا اِنْ نَسِينَا اَوْ اَخْطَاْنَا
سُبْحَانَكَ لاَ عِلْمَ لَنَا اِلاَّ مَا عَلَّمْتَنَا اِنَّكَ اَنْتَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ
1 Imam Abu Hanifa (Nu’man bin Thâbit)(Ra)
2 Abdulqâdir Jilânî (Ra)
3 (There is nothing which is not in Our inexhaustible treasure and sent down in appropriate measure.)
5 (He has raised the samâ on high and created the balance, * So that you may not transgress the balance. * Therefore, you also establish the balance with justice and fall not short in the balance.)