Quwwa Al-Aqliyyah - القوة العقلية
Quwwa is a faculty. A quality. A possibility. A potency. Powers; faculties.
Quwwa Al-Aqliyyah is the power of mind. The power which is given to man in order to distinguish between haqq and bâtil and benefit and harm, especially things beneficial or harmful for his eternal life.
To explain: Allah (‘Azza wa jalla) housed the rûh in man's changing and needy body exposed to dangers. He entrusted three powers (quwwa) to it in order to preserve the rûh.
The First: al-quwwa ash-shahawiyyah al-bahîmiyyah, the power of animal appetites to attract benefits.
The Second: al-quwwa al-ghadhabiyyah as-sabui’yyah, the predacious power of anger to repulse harmful and destructive things.
The Third: al-quwwa al-aqliyyah al-malakiyyah, the power of mind pertaining to the malâikah to distinguish between benefit and harm.
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(For further explanation, please refer to the Compilation As-sirât Al-mustaqîm.)