Dictionary / Arabic - Turkish Terminology

SHAJÂ'AH – شجاعة


Literally: A being or becoming brave. Bravery. Valour.

The wasat degree of al-quwwa al-ghadhabiyyah (the power of savage passion). Using al-quwwa al-ghadhabiyyah in the bounds of as-sirât al-mustaqîm. Giving freely of one’s rûh with love and eagerness for the defence of the laws of Islam and the upholding of the Word of Tawhîd.


“The authorities on Hadith and foremost Imam Bukhari report that it was rumoured one night that the enemy was attacking outside Madinah al-Munawwarah. Brave horsemen went out to investigate. On the way, they saw someone coming. They looked and saw that it was Ar-Rasûl Al-Akram ‘Alayhissalâtu Wassalâm. He told them there was nothing. He had mounted Abu Talha's famous horse, as his sacred shajâ'ah impelled him to, and had gone before everyone else to investigate, then returned.” The Letters (190-191 )


“After the Qur'an, the greatest miracle of Ar-Rasûl Al-Akram ‘Alayhissalâtu Wassalâm was his own self. That is, the elevated moral virtues brought together in his person which as friend and foe agreed, every aspect of which were of the very highest level. A hero of the shajâ'ah, Hazrat 'Ali, said again and again: "Whenever the fighting grew fierce, we would take refuge behind Ar-Rasûl Al-Akram ‘Alayhissalâtu Wassalâm." Like this, he was the highest and unattainable degree in all praiseworthy qualities.” The Letters ( 219 )


الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ : Know that as-sirât al-mustaqîm is justice (‘adl) and the summary of hikmah, ‘iffah and shajâ'ah which are the wasat in the three degrees of man's three powers (quwwa).

To explain: Allah (‘Azza wa jalla) housed the rûh in man's changing and needy body exposed to dangers. He entrusted three powers (quwwa) to it in order to preserve the rûh.

The First: al-quwwa ash-shahawiyyah al-bahîmiyyah, the power of animal appetites to attract benefits.

The Second: al-quwwa al-ghadhabiyyah as-sabui’yyah, the predacious power of anger to repulse harmful and destructive things.

The Third: al-quwwa al-aqliyyah al-malakiyyah, the power of mind pertaining to the malâikah to distinguish between benefit and harm.

However, in accordance with His hikmah that necessitates mankind achieving perfection through the mystery of competition, Allah did not determine limits on these powers in man’s fitrah, although He did on the powers of animals. Through the Sharî’ah, He determined limits on them and prohibited ifrât and tafrît and ordered the wasat. This is what is clearly ordered by the âyahفَاسْتَقِمْ كَمَٓا اُمِرْتَ 1 . Since there is no fıtrî limitation in these three powers, three degrees occur in each: the degree of tafrît, which is deficiency, the degree of ifrât, which is excess and the degree of wasat, which is justice (‘adl).

Here, the degrees of al-quwwa al-aqliyyah:

1. Tafrît in al-quwwa al-aqliyyah is gabâwah and foolishness.

2. Its ifrât is deceptive jarbaza and over-meticulousness in trivial matters.

3. Its wasat is hikmah.2 وَمَنْ يُؤْتَ الْحِكْمَةَ فَقَدْ اُو۫تِىَ خَيْرًا كَث۪يرًۜا 3

Know that just as these powers vary in these three degrees, so does each of their branches. For example, in the matter of the creation of actions4 , the wasat is the madhab of ahl al-Sunnah5 between the Jabriyya6 and the Mu'tazila7 . And, in the matter of belief, the madhab of tawhîd is the wasat between the denial of the attributes or existence of Allah (ta'til) and anthropomorphism (tashbîh). The examples can be made further on this analogy.

The degrees of al-quwwa ash-shahawiyyah:

1. Tafrît in al-quwwa ash-shahawiyyah is khumud which is having no longing for anything.

2. Its ifrât is fujûr, which is to desire whatever is encountered, whether halal or haram.

3. Its wasat is ‘iffah, which is desiring what is halal and shunning away what is haram.

Compare the branches of this quwwa, such as eating, drinking, dressing, and so on, with the root of this principle.

The degrees of al-quwwa al-ghadhabiyyah:

1. Tafrît in al-quwwa al-ghadhabiyyah is jabânah, which is fear of what is not to be feared and having wahm.

2. Its ifrât is tahawwur8 , which is the source and father of despotism, domination and dhulm.

3. Its wasat is shajâ'ah, which is giving freely of one’s rûh with love and eagerness for the defence of the laws of Islam and the upholding of the Word of Tawhîd.

Compare its branches with it.

The six extremes are thus dhulm and the three wasat are justice (‘adl) which is as-sirât al-mustaqîm and is to act in accordance withفَاسْتَقِمْ كَمَٓا اُمِرْتَ 9 . Whoever passes along this bridge of as-sirât al-mustaqîm will cross the bridge of sirât suspended over the Fire.

  The Sign of Miraculousness-53



“As for the Shi'a’s “Khilâfah”10 , they have no rights before the Ahl al-Sunnah wa'l-Jamâ'ah other than shame. For although they claim to have tremendous love for Hazrat ‘Ali (ra), they disparage him, and their madhab necessitates accusing him of immorality. For they say that although Hazrat Abu Bakr al-Siddîq and Hazrat ‘Umar (ra) were acting unjustly, ‘Ali (ra) feigned approval for them; according to Shi'a terminology, he dissimulated. That is, he was frightened of them and behaved hypocritically. But it is not love to see someone who was such a hero of Islam, won the title 'Asadullah,'11 and was the commander and guide of the siddîqs as simulating love for people he did not love out of fear and deception, as feigning approval for them in fear for more than twenty years, and as following wrongdoers. Hazrat ‘Ali (ra) would disclaim love that sort.

Thus, the People of Haqq's madhab in no way disparages Hazrat ‘Ali (ra), nor levels accusations of immorality at him. It does not attribute cowardice to such a remarkable co shajâ'ah, but says: "If Hazrat ‘Ali (ra) had not considered the Rightly-Guided Khalîfahs to be haqq, he would not have recognized them for a minute, nor obeyed them. It means that since he thought them right and preferable, he surrendered his endeavour and shajâ'ah on the way of haqq." The Flashes ( 42 )



1 (Stand firm in istiqâmah as you are commanded!)

2 (The explanation of these three degrees in the translation of Abdulmajid Nursi:

Gabâwah is not knowing anything. Jarbaza is to have a deceptive mind to the degree that can show bâtil as haqq and haqq as bâtil. Hikmah is the degree of the power of mind that knows haqq as haqq and conforms to it, the bâtil as bâtil and abstains from it.) (Tr.)

3 (He, who has been given hikmah, has been given great khayr.)

4 (The matter of qadar and juz al-ikhtiyarî, which is about who is the creator of the actions of man and animals.) (Tr.)

5 (The wasat explanation of ahl al-Sunnah on the matter of qadar and juz al-ikhtiyarî has been explained perfectly in the Twenty-Sixth Word, The Risale on Qadar.) (Tr.)

6 (Jabriyya: A bâtil madhab fell into dhalâlah by denying juz al-ikhtiyarî of man and claiming that qadar controls man outside his free will and choice.) (Tr.)

7 (Mu’tazila: A bâtil madhab fell into dhalâlah by claiming that man is the owner and the creator of his actions without the interference of the qadar and the creation of Allah.) (Tr.)

8 (The explanation of tahawwur in the translation of Abdulmajid Nursi: not having the fear of any ma’nawî or material thing.) (Tr.)

9 (Stand firm in istiqâmah as you are commanded!)

10 (The Shi’a group who are deviated to an excessive and wrong idea of being Hazrat ‘Ali’s first khalîfah insistently)

11 (Lion of Allah)

Yukarı Çık