LESSONS / Compilations

RAMADHAN - SAWM - 1

[Since the shaâ’er of Islam has been discussed a little bit at the end of the First Section, in this Second Section concerning the Noble Ramadhan, which is the most brilliant and splendid amongst the shaâ’er, some of its hikmahs will be mentioned.

This Second Section is “Nine Subtle Points”, which declares nine of the many hikmahs of the Noble Ramadhan.]

بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِى اُنْزِلَ فِيهِ الْقُرْآنُ هُدًى لِلنَّاسِ وَ بَيِّنَاتٍ مِنَ الْهُدَى وَ الْفُرْقَانِ1

First Subtle Point: The sawm in the Noble Ramadhan is one of the foremost of the five pillars of Islam. Also, it is one of the greatest of the shaâ’er of Islam.2  There are many hikmahs of the sawm in the Noble Ramadhan, which look to both Janâb-i Haqq's Rubûbiyyah, and man's social life, and his personal life, and the tarbiyyah of the nafs and the shukr for Ilahî ni’mahs. One of the many hikmahs of the sawm in the point of Janâb-i Haqq's rubûbiyyah is as follows:

Since Janâb-i Haqq created the face of the earth in the form of a table of ni’mah, and set up every sort of ni’mah on that table in a manner مِنْ حَيْثُ لاَ يَحْتَسِبُ3 , through such a state, He expresses the perfection of His rubûbiyyah, rahmâniyyah and rahîmiyyah. Under the veil of ghaflah and in the sphere of causes, human beings are unable to entirely see the haqiqah, which that state expresses, and sometimes forget. However, in the Noble Ramadhan, the people of îmân suddenly become a well-arranged army. In a manner of being invited to the Past-Eternal Sultân's banquet, close to sunset, they display a demeanour of ‘ubûdiyyah as though waiting for the command of "Help yourselves!", and before that compassionate, majestic and universal rahmâniyyah, they respond with an extensive, great and orderly ‘ubûdiyyah. I wonder, are those who do not participate in such exalted ‘ubûdiyyah and the honour of such bestowal worthy to the name of the human being?

Second Subtle Point: One of the many hikmahs in the sawm of the Blessed Ramadhan with respect to the shukr of Janâb-i Haqq’s ni’mahs is as follows:

As is said in the First Word, the foods a tray-bearer brought from the kitchen of a sultân require a price. Through supposing those extremely precious ni’mahs valueless, to not recognize the one who bestowed them despite being given a tip to the tray-bearer is the greatest foolishness.

Janâb-i Haqq has spread His infinite varieties of ni’mahs over the face of the earth for mankind. In return, He wants shukr as the price of those ni’mahs. The apparent causes and possessors of those ni’mahs are the tray-bearers. We pay a price to those tray-bearers, we become grateful to them; we even show extreme respect and thank them although they do not deserve it. Whereas, by means of the ni’mah, the True Mun’im is infinitely more worthy of shukr than those causes. Thus, to thank Him is to know that the ni’mahs are directly from Him, to appreciate the value of those ni’mahs and to perceive one's own need for those ni’mahs.

Thus, the sawm in the Noble Ramadhan is the key to a true and sincere, great and universal shukr. Because, other times, since most of the people, who are not under the condition of constrained necessity, do not experience real hunger, they cannot understand the value of many ni’mahs. A piece of dry bread, for those full men, especially if they are rich, the degree of ni’mah within it is not understood. But at the time of iftâr, that dry bread, the sense of taste of a mu’min testifies that it is in his eyes an extremely precious ni’mah of Allah. Everyone from the sultân to the most destitute, during the Noble Ramadhan, through understanding the value of those ni’mahs, becomes a place on which a ma’nawî shukr manifests.4

Also, regarding the eating being prohibited during the day, saying "Those ni’mahs are not my possession. I am not free to eat them; that means they are another's property and bestowal. I await His command." one recognizes the ni’mah to be ni’mah, and offers a ma’nawî shukr. Thus, sawm in this way in many respects becomes a key to shukr which is the true duty of man.

Third Subtle Point: One of the many hikmahs of the sawm concerning man's social life is as follows:

Mankind has been created variously concerning livelihood. In consequence of that difference, Janâb-i Haqq invites the rich to render assistance to the poor.5 . Whereas the rich can completely understand the hunger of the poor and their conditions worthy to be pitied through the hunger experienced in sawm. If there was no sawm, there may be found many rich, who perform ‘ibâdah to their nafs, unable to understand how grievous hunger and poverty are and how needy of compassion they are.

As for compassion present in humanity for one's fellow man from this aspect, it is a fundamental principle of true shukr. Whoever an individual is, he may find someone poorer than himself in one respect. He is responsible for being compassionate towards that person. If there is no compulsion to cause nafs to suffer hunger, he cannot render the bestowal and assistance to which he is responsible by means of compassion; even if he does, it cannot be complete. For he does not truly experience that state in his nafs.

Fourth Subtle Point: One of the many hikmahs in sawm in the Noble Ramadhan concerning the tarbiyyah of the nafs is as follows:

Nafs wants itself to be free and independent and considers itself to be thus. By fitrah, it even desires an imaginary rubûbiyyah and to act as it pleases. It does not want to think that it is being rendered tarbiyyah through boundless ni’mahs. Especially, if he possesses wealth and power in this world, and if ghaflah also assists, he usurpingly and thievingly devours the ni’mah of Allah like an animal.

Thus, in the Noble Ramadhan, from the richest to the poorest, everyone’s nafs understands that he is not the owner but is owned as an absolute property; he is not free but is an ‘abd. Since he cannot do the simplest and easiest thing, he cannot even stretch out his hand to the water if he is not commanded, its imaginary rubûbiyyah is shattered; it assumes ‘ubûdiyyah and begins to shukr which is its true duty.

Fifth Subtle Point: One of the many hikmahs in the sawm of the Noble Ramadhan from the point of correcting the morals of one's nafs and giving up its rebellious habits is as follows:

The nafs of man forgets itself through ghaflah. It cannot see the boundless impotence, infinite poverty and utmost deficiency within its essence and it does not wish to see them. And it does not think of how weak it is and subjected to transience and targeted by calamities and consisted of flesh and bones, which quickly decay and disperse.

It pounces the world as though it has a body made of steel and as though it imagines itself to be undying and eternal. It leaps into the world with severe ambition and covetousness and an intense attachment and love. It is bound to every pleasurable and beneficial thing. It also forgets its Khâliq, Who renders it tarbiyyah with perfect compassion. It also does not think of the results of its life and its life in the âkhirah; it wallows in bad morals.

Thus, sawm in the Noble Ramadhan causes even the most ghâfil and obstinate to perceive their weakness, impotence and poverty. By means of hunger, one thinks of his stomach. He understands the need therein. He remembers how unsound his weak body is. He understands how needy for mercy and compassion he is. Abandoning the pharaoh state of the nafs, he feels a desire to take refuge at the Ilahî Court with the uttermost impotence and poverty, and he becomes prepared to knock at the door of rahmah with the hand of a ma’nawî shukr. If ghaflah has not destroyed his heart.

Sixth Subtle Point: One of the many hikmahs in the sawm of the Noble Ramadhan concerning the revelation of Al-Qur’an Al-Hakîm and with respect to the Noble Ramadhan being the most important time of Al-Qur’an Al-Hakîm being sent down is as follows:

Since Al-Qur’an Al-Hakîm was sent down in the month of Ramadhan, one becomes a place of manifestation for a sacred state resembling the state of malâikah through abandoning eating and drinking and divesting of useless conditions and worldly needs of the nafs in the Noble Ramadhan by waiting for the time of the Qur’an being sent down, in order to greet that samâwî address well, and a sacred state like reciting and listening to the Qur’an as though it has just been sent down and like listening to the Ilahî address within it as though it was sent down that very instant, and listening to that address as though hearing it from Ar-Rasûl Al-Akram ‘Alayhissalâtu Wassalâm, rather from Hazrat Jabrâil, or from the Past Eternal Mutakallim.6 And, by himself being an interpreter, it is to cause others to listen to it and to demonstrate the hikmah of the Qur'an being sent down, to some degree.

Yes, as though the world of Islam becomes a mosque in the Noble Ramadhan. It is such a mosque, in every corner of that mighty mosque, millions of hâfidhes cause the inhabitants of the earth to hear the Qur’an, that samâwî address.

Each Ramadhan displays the âyah شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِى اُنْزِلَ فِيهِ الْقُرْآنُ7 in a luminous shining manner. It proves that Ramadhan is the month of the Qur'an. The remaining members of the vast jamâ’ah, some of them listen to those hâfidhes by assuming a humble posture and a manner before the grandeur and glory of Allah (khushû’), while others recite it themselves.

In a sacred mosque in such a state, by following the desires of the base nafs and eating and drinking, how ugly it is to abandon that luminous condition and being the target of the ma’nawî aversion of the jamâ’ah in such a mosque; in the same way, people who oppose those holding sawm during the Noble Ramadhan are the target of the ma’nawî aversion and insult of the whole world of Islam to the same extent.

Seventh Subtle Point: One of the many hikmahs in the sawm of Ramadhan with respect to mankind's gain and profit, who came to cultivation and trade for the âkhirah in this world, is as follows:

The sawâb for deeds in the Noble Ramadhan is a thousand to one. According to nass8 of the Hadith, each letter of Al-Qur’an Al-Hakîm has ten sawâbs; each is counted as ten good deeds and yields ten Jannah fruits.9 In the Noble Ramadhan, each letter is not ten but a thousand, and for each letter of âyahs like Âyah al-Kursi are thousands, and it is even more on Jumas of the Noble Ramadhan. And on the Night of Qadr, it is counted as thirty thousand good deeds.

Yes, Al-Qur’an Al-Hakîm, each of whose letters yields thirty thousand eternal fruits, becomes such a luminous Tree of Tûbâ; it causes mu’mins to gain millions of those eternal fruits in the Noble Ramadhan. Thus, come and look to this sacred, eternal profitable trade, behold and think that those who do not appreciate the value of those letters lose to which extent.

Thus, the Noble Ramadhan is, in fact, an extremely profitable exhibition and a market for the trade of the âkhirah. And, it is an extremely fertile land for the proceeds of the âkhirah. And, it is the month of April in the spring in order to grow and flourish deeds. For the parade of mankind's ‘ubûdiyyah before the sovereignty of Ilahî rubûbiyyah, it is the most brilliant sacred festival. Since it is thus, one has been charged with sawm in order not to enter upon the animal needs of the nafs like eating and drinking with ghaflah and useless appetites in a manner performing ‘ibâdah to the desires of the nafs. Since one as though temporarily divests from animality and enters into the malâikah state or the trade of the âkhirah, it is to be a mirror reflecting Samadiyyah through his sawm, by quitting the needs of the world and entering into the state of the man of the âkhirah and of a rûh appearing in bodily form. Yes, the Noble Ramadhan is comprised and a cause to gain a long permanent and eternal life within this transient world and within a short transient life.

Certainly, a single Ramadhan can cause to gain the fruits of eighty years of life. Through the nass of the Qur'an, the Night of Qadr being contained more khayr than a thousand months is a decisive proof for this mystery.

Just as a sultân, during his sovereignty or on each year, with the name of the ascending the throne or on some other days which reflect a glittering manifestation of his sovereignty, declares certain days to be festivals. On that day, not within the general sphere of the law, rather he bestows to his subjects his special favours, and his presence without veil, and his private compliments and his wondrous activities, and he directly turns his private regard and attention toward his loyal and worthy nation.

In the same way, the Past and Future Eternal Zuljalâl Sultân of eighteen thousand ‘âlam sent down His illustrious decree Al-Qur’an Al-Hakîm, which favourably turns toward the eighteen thousand ‘âlam, in the Noble Ramadhan. Indeed, such Ramadhan being a special Ilahî festival and a Rabbânî exhibition and a gathering for rûhs is a requirement of hikmah. Since Ramadhan is that festival, indeed, sawm will be commanded in order to withdraw man to a degree from the base and animal occupations.

And as for the perfect amongst such sawm, it is to make the senses and faculties of man like his eyes, ears, heart, imagination and thoughts holding a sort of sawm like the stomach. That is, it is to withdraw them from haram and useless things and urge them to ‘ubûdiyyah particular to each of them.

For example, to make the tongue hold sawm by detaching it from lies, ghiybah and rude expressions. And to occupy the tongue with things like reciting the Qur'an and dhikr, tasbîh, salawât and istighfâr.

For example, it is to make other faculties too hold sawm like preventing one’s eyes looking to non-mahrams, and the ears from hearing evil things, and to use the eyes to take admonition and warning, and the ears to listen to the haqq words and the Qur'an. As a matter of fact, since the stomach is the largest factory, if it is suspended from its occupation through sawm, the other small workshops may easily be made to follow it.

Eighth Subtle Point: One of the many hikmahs in the Noble Ramadhan concerning man's personal life is as follows:

It is a physical and ma’nawî abstinence as a sort of most important medicine and is medically a diet. As long as man's nafs eats and drinks just as it pleases, it medically harms his physical life; and devouring everything he encounters without considering whether it is halal or haram poisons his ma’nawî life as well. Henceforth, to obey the heart and the rûh becomes hard for such a nafs. It rebelliously takes its reins into its own hands. Man cannot ride it anymore, it rides man. By means of sawm in the Noble Ramadhan, it becomes accustomed to a sort of abstinence, works on riyâzah and learns to listen to commands. He also does not attract illnesses to that unfortunate and weak stomach by filling it with food over food before digestion. And with respect to abandoning halal by means of command, it acquires the ability to listen to the commands that come from the Sharî’ah and the mind in order to abstain from haram. It works not to destroy the ma’nawî life.

Also, the great majority of mankind often becomes subject to hunger. They are in need of hunger and riyâzah, which are training for patience and endurance. Sawm in the Noble Ramadhan is to be patient and endure a period of hunger that continues for fifteen hours —if it is without the sahûr twenty-four hours — and it is a riyâzah and a training. That is to say, a medicine for impatience and intolerance that double the calamity of mankind is also sawm.

Moreover, the factory of the stomach has many servants. Also, there are many human faculties that are connected to it. If the nafs is not temporarily suspended from its occupation during the daytime of a month, it makes the factory's servants and those faculties forget their particular ‘ibâdah, makes them busy with itself and makes them remain under its tyranny. It also makes the other faculties of man confused with the noise and smoke of the ma’nawî factory's wheels. It continuously attracts their attention to itself and makes them temporarily forget their exalted duties. It is for this reason, from of old, many people of walâyah have accustomed themselves to riyâzah and to eating and drinking little in order to be perfected.

However, through sawm in the Noble Ramadhan, the servants of that factory understand that they were not created solely for that factory. And the other faculties, instead of the lowly amusements of the factory, take pleasure in amusements of the rûh like malâikah in the Noble Ramadhan and fix their gazes on them. Therefore, in the Noble Ramadhan, according to their degrees, mu’mins become the place of manifestation for various nûrs, faydh and ma’nawî joys. There is a great progress of the subtle faculties, such as the heart, rûh, mind and sirr, and they receive great faydh in that blessed month by means of sawm. They innocently laugh despite the stomach's weeping.

Ninth Subtle Point: One of the hikmahs in sawm of the Noble Ramadhan with respect to shattering directly the imaginary rubûbiyyah of the nafs and causing it to know its ‘ubûdiyyah through showing its impotence is as follows:

Nafs does not want to recognize its Rabb; it wants rubûbiyyah like Pharaoh. However much torment it is caused to be suffered, that vein remains in it. However, that vein is shattered through hunger.

Thus, the sawm in the Noble Ramadhan strikes the pharaoh front line of the nafs and shatters it. It demonstrates its impotence, weakness and poverty. It makes it realize that it is an ‘abd.

There is in riwâyât of Hadith:

Janâb-i Haqq said to the nafs:

- “What am I and what are you?”

The nafs said:

- “I am myself and You are Yourself.”

He punished by torment and cast it into Jahannam, then asked again. Again it said:

-"Ana ana, anta anta."10

Whatever torment He caused, it did not abandon the ananiyyah. Then, He punished it with the torment of hunger. That is, He left it hungry. Then again He asked:

-"Man ana? Wa mâ anta?"11

The nafs replied:

- وَاَنَا عَبْدُكَ الْعَاجْزُ - اَنْتَ رَبِّى الرَّحِيمُ   That is: “You are my Rabb, Who is Rahîm, and I am an impotent ‘abd of Yours.”

اَللّٰهُمَّ صَلِّ وَسَلِّمْ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ صَلاَةً تَكُونُ لَكَ رِضَاءً وَ لِحَقِّهِ اَدَاءً بِعَدَدِ ثَوَابِ قِرَائَةِ حُرُوفِ الْقُرْآنِ فِى شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ وَ عَلَى آلِهِ وَ صَحْبِهِ وَ سَلِّمْ

سُبْحَانَ رَبِّكَ رَبِّ الْعِزَّةِ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ وَسَلاَمٌ عَلَى الْمُرْسَلِينَ وَ الْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ آمِينَ

The Twenty-Ninth Letter

 

Preserving the hudhur of the heart in the Ramadhan

 “During this Holy Ramadhan, I have been very much in need of avoiding matters and to forget the world. Unfortunately, however, they are forcing us to occasionally look to the world. Inshaallah, since our intention in looking, is the service of îmân, that too is considered a form of ‘ibâdah.” Kastamonu Addendum (200)

 

“On condition there is ikhlas, the du'âs made during this holy month of the Noble Ramadhan are Inshaallah acceptable. However, unfortunately, due to certain attacks made mostly to students of the Risale-i Nur to turn their attention to this world and spoil their hudhur of heart, that ikhlas and complete hudhur can be harmed to a degree. Do not worry, refer all matters to Janâb-i Haqq and pay no importance to such attacks.” Kastamonu Addendum (291)

 

“My ‘Azîz, Siddîq Brothers!

I congratulate you with all my heart and soul on the blessed month of Ramadhan. May Janâb-i Haqq make this Noble Ramadhan’s Night of Qadr the equivalent of a thousand months for all of you, and accept it as an eighty-year accepted lifetime. Amen.

Secondly: I am of the opinion that there are numerous benefits and khayr in our remaining here until the ‘Eid. If we were to be released now, we would both lose out on all the khayr of this Madrasa of Yûsuf, and spoil the Noble Ramadhan, which looks purely to the âkhirah and taint our ma’nawî hudhur with worldly activities. In accordance with   اَلْخَيْرُ فِى مَا اخْتَارَهُ اللّٰهُ12 we shall find great joy with khayr in this, Inshaallah.” The Rays ( 505 )

 

“How is the mu’min’s best du'â for another mu’min?

The Answer: It has to be within the bounds of what is acceptable, for du'â becomes acceptable under certain conditions; their acceptability increases as these conditions are fulfilled. For instance, when du’âs are to be made, a person should be purified ma’nawî by istighfâr; then he should dhikr salawât which is an accepted du’â, for shafâ’ah; and following his du’â, he should again recite the salawât. For a du'â offered between two accepted du'â itself becomes acceptable. Also, بِظَهْرِ الْغَيْبِ that is, offering du'â for another without their knowledge; and offering du'â with the du’âs in the Qur'an and Hadiths. For example:

اَللّٰهُمَّ اِنِّى اَسْئَلُكَ الْعَفْوَ وَ الْعَافِيَةَ لِى وَ لَهُ فِى الدِّينِ وَ الدُّنْيَا وَ اْلآخِرَةِ

رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِى الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَفِى اْلآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَ قِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ13

General du’âs like these which are offered sincerely, and with khushû’ and hudhur of heart; and following the salâh, and the morning salâh in particular; and in holy places, and mosques in particular; and on Juma, and particularly during 'the hour when du’âs are answered;' and during the three months14 and on the well-known holy nights,15 in Ramadhan, on the Night of Qadr in particular - it is to be strongly hoped from Ilahî rahmah that such du’âs will be accepted. The results of such accepted du’âs are either seen exactly as wished in this world, or they are accepted in respect of the eternal life in the âkhirah of the one who offered them. That is to say, if what was sought does not occur exactly as wished, it may not be said that the du'â was not accepted, but that it was accepted in a better form.” The Letters (330-331 )

 

سُبْحَانَ رَبِّكَ رَبِّ الْعِزَّةِ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ وَسَلاَمٌ عَلَى الْمُرْسَلِينَ وَ الْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ آمِينَ

اَللّٰهُمَّ صَلِّ وَسَلِّمْ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ صَلاَةً تَكُونُ لَكَ رِضَاءً وَ لِحَقِّهِ اَدَاءً بِعَدَدِ ثَوَابِ قِرَائَةِ حُرُوفِ الْقُرْآنِ فِى شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ وَ عَلَى آلِهِ وَ صَحْبِهِ وَ سَلِّمْ

سُبْحَانَكَ لاَ عِلْمَ لَنَا اِلاَّ مَا عَلَّمْتَنَا اِنَّكَ اَنْتَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ

1 [Ramadhan is the month in which the Quran was sent down as a guide for humanity with clear proofs of hidâyah and furqân (to distinguish between haqq and bâtil)]

2 “Sunnah as-Saniyyah has degrees. Some of them are wâjib, these are not to be abandoned. This sort is declared in detail in the Illustrious Sharî’ah. They are muhkamât and are not to be changed in any aspect. Another sort of it is nawâfil. The sort of nawâfil also is of two sorts:

One sort is the Sunnah as-Saniyyah subjected to ‘ibâdah. They, too, are declared in the books of the Sharî’ah. To change them is bid’ah. The other sort is called âdâb, and are described in the books of the Prophet's biography (Siyar as-Saniyyah). Opposition to them is not called bid’ah. But it is an opposition of a sort to the Prophet's âdâb and it is to not benefit from their nûr and from such true adab. As for this sort, it is to follow Ar-Rasûl Al-Akram ‘Alayhissalâtu Wassalâm’s actions concerning general custom, habitual practices and fıtrî acts, which are known through tawâtur. For example, there are a number of Sunnah as-Saniyyah concerning social relations that show the âdâb of speaking, and those declaring the principles of the âdâb of conditions like eating, drinking and sleeping. The Sunnahs of this sort are called “âdâb”. However, one who follows such âdâb transforms his habitual practices into ‘ibâdah and receives significant faydh from that âdâb. Conforming to the smallest âdâb reminds of Ar-Rasûl Al-Akram ‘Alayhissalâtu Wassalâm, and gives a nûr to the heart.

The most important among the Sunnah as-Saniyyah are the Sunnahs which are the symbols of Islam and connected with the shaâ’er. Shaâ’er is an ‘ubûdiyyah concerning the community which is, in fact, a sort of general right. As the whole community benefits through one person performing them, the whole community will be responsible due to its abandonment. Riyâ cannot penetrate in this sort of shaâ’er, and it is to be proclaimed. Even if they are of the nawâfil sort, they are more important than personal fardhs.” The Eleventh Flash-6th Point

(Please refer to the compilation on the Shaâ’er)

3 (Beyond all expectation)

4 “Out of His perfect generosity, Janâb-i Haqq makes the poorest man perceive the pleasure of His ni’mah as the richest man and a beggar (that is, the poor) as a sultân. Yes, the pleasure a poor man receives from a dry piece of black bread by means of hunger and frugality is greater than the pleasure a sultân or a rich receives from the best quality baklawa eaten with the weariness and lacking appetite resulting from waste.” The Nineteenth Flash

5 “the order of society is dependent on there being no vacuum between the classes of people. The upper classes should not grow distant from the lower classes, nor the rich from the poor, to the extent that the lines of communication are broken between them. But because the being wâjib of zakât and the being haram of usury and interest have been neglected, a yawning gap has opened up between the classes, and the upper classes have grown so distant from the lower classes that no links between them remain. It is because of this that instead of respect, obedience, and love ascending from the lower classes to the upper classes, shouts of revolution arise, and shrieks of envy and cries of hatred and revenge. Similarly, instead of kindness, generosity, and favours descending from the upper to the lower classes, the fires of tyranny and oppression, and volleys of insult rain down on them. Alas! While the qualities of the elite should be the cause of modesty and compassion, unfortunately they give rise to pride and arrogance. And while the powerlessness and poverty of the poor necessitate kindness and benevolence, they lead to slavery and degradation. If you want a witness for what I say, take a look at the civilized world; there you will find as many witnesses as you could wish for. The only means of reconciliation between the classes, which will bring them closer together, is the payment of zakât, one of the pillars of Islam, and an elevated, far-reaching rule in the administration of society.” Signs of Miraculousness ( 53 )

6 “KNOW, O FRIEND, that each melody of the Qur’an assumes a new attitude and mood according to the level of the audience it is guiding. Try to assume the mood of the intermediaries ranging from Jabrâil ‘alayhissalâm, who brought it to the Prophet, to the one from whom you hear it directly. While listening to its recitation, try to hear it as if you were listening to the Prophet reciting it at the summit of nubuwwah to all people and other beings. Then assume the manner of Jabrâil while He recites it to the Prophet (asm), on the “highest horizon.” Finally, try to hear it as if you were listening to it from behind 70,000 veils from the Pre-Eternal Mutakallim, Who speaks to the Prophet at Qab Qawsayn.” Al-Mathnawi al-Nuri (194 )

7 (Ramadhan is the month in which the Quran was sent down)

8 (A decisive text which is not open to interpretations. An âyah of the Qur'an or a Hadith decisive of any point in fiqh. Aqîdah.) (Tr.)

9 “O the man in ghaflah! See Janâb-i Haqq’s fadl and generosity! Although it would be justice to record one evil as a thousand and a single good deed as one or not at all, He records a single evil as one, and a single good deed as ten, and sometimes as seventy or seven hundred, or even sometimes as seven thousand. You will also understand from this Remark that to be sent to Jahannam, which is so dreadful, is retribution for the deed and pure justice, while to be sent to Jannah is pure fadl.” The Words ( 329 )

10 (I am myself and You are Yourself.)

11 (Who am I and who are you?)

12 (Khayr lies in what Allah wishes)

13 (O Allah! I beseech You to bestow forgiveness and well-being on me and on so-and-so in religion, this world, and the âkhirah. O our Rabb! Give us good in this world and good in the âkhirah, and defend us from the torment of the Fire.)

14 (Rajab, Sha'ban, and Ramadhan)

15 (Raghâib, Barâ’at, Mi’raj)

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