Although it is not a person or individual, the partnerships like jamâ’ah, group or company that are treated as a person or individual. An individual that is composed of a group.
Every being, living or unliving, has a mana’wî collective personality:
Yes, if numerous things take on the form of a group (jamâ’ah), it will have a ma’nawî collective personality. If such a group take on the form of unity by blending with each other, it will have a ma’nawî collective personality and a sort of ma’nawî rûh which will represent it, and an appointed (muwakkal) malâikah, who will perform its duty of tasbîh. Here, look! As an example, look at the plane-tree in front of my room here, an enormous word of the mouth of Barla and the tongue of this mountain, see: how many hundreds of tongues there are on each of the three crowns of the tree. And, look! How many hundreds of balanced and well-ordered fruit words there are on each tongue. And, study carefully how many hundreds of balanced small seed letters with wings offer fluent praise and eloquent tasbîh to their Sâni’ Zuljalâl Who possess the command of 1 كُنْ فَيَكُونُ . Just as you hear and see it, so too, the malâikah appointed to it represents its tasbîhât with numerous tongues worthy of it in al-‘âlam al-ma’nâ, and this is what hikmah necessitates.
The Fourteenth Word – The Third
Every individual has a mana’wî collective personality. As an example, the mana’wî collective personality of Muhammad ‘Alayhissalâtu Wassalâm:
States and attributes of Ar-Rasûl Al-Akram ‘Alayhissalâtu Wassalâm have been expressed in the form of history and biography (siyar). But most of those attributes and states look to his humanity. Whereas, the ma’nawî collective personality and the sacred essence of that blessed personage are so high and luminous that the attributes expressed in biography (siyar) and history do not suit that high stature and do not conform with that value. Because according to the mystery, اَلسَّبَبُ كَالْفَاعِلِ2 , every day, even at this moment, the immense amount of ‘ibâdah as much as the ‘ibâdah of his whole ummah is added to the pages of his perfections. Just as he is endlessly place of manifestation for the endless rahmah of Allah, with an unlimited capacity, so is he the place of manifestation for the infinite du'â of his infinite ummah every day. All essence and the haqiqah of perfection of that blessed personage, who is the result and the most perfect fruit of this universe and the interpreter and the beloved of Al-Khâliq of the universe, cannot be contained in the human states and attitudes recorded in the biography (siyar) and history.
For example, a blessed personage, who was with Hazrat Jabrâil and Mîkâîl as two guard aides-de-camp at his side in the Battle of Badr cannot be contained in the attitude of bargaining with a bedouin in the marketplace over the price of a horse, which is seen by the testimony of the sole witness Khuzayma. Thus, in order not to proceed in error, every time, by raising one’s head from the ordinary attributes heard about the essence of his humanity, it is necessary to look at his real essence and luminous ma’nawî personality standing at the rank of messengership. Otherwise, one will either show him irreverence or fall into doubt. In order to explain this mystery, listen to the following comparison:
For example, there is a seed of the date tree. That seed of the date tree was put under the earth, has sprouted and become a large tree giving fruits. It becomes extensive gradually and grows. Or there was an egg of a peacock. The heat was given to that egg; a peacock chick was hatched from it. Then, it became a perfect peacock gilded and inscribed all over by Qoudrah. It also grows gradually and becomes more beautiful. Now, there are attributes and states that belong to the seed and the egg. There are subtle substances within them. Also, the tree and the bird, which originated from them, have great and elevated attributes and conditions in comparison with the ordinary and small states and conditions of that egg and seed. So, while discussing the attributes of that tree and bird by connecting them with the attributes of the seed and the egg, it is necessary that man’s mind may raise his head from the seed to the tree and look at it and turn his eyes to the bird and behold it, so that his mind can accept the attributes he heard. Otherwise, if one says: “I have obtained thousands of kilos of dates from three grams seed” or “This egg is the sultân of all birds in the samâwât,” he will turn to denial and will pronounce it to be false. In the same way, the humanity of Rasûl Al-Akram ‘Alayhissalâtu Wassalâm resembles that seed or egg. And as for his essence shining with the duty of messengership, it is like the Tûbâ-tree of Jannah and the imperial bird of Jannah, and it continues to gain perfection. Therefore, when one thinks of the person who disputed in the marketplace with a bedouin, it is necessary to raise the eye of imagination to his luminous personage who, riding the Rafraf,3 leaving Jabrâil behind, raised Qab Qawsayn. Otherwise, he will either be disrespectful or his nafs al-ammarah will not believe.
The Nineteenth Letter – Fourth Subtle Sign – Sixth Principle
Yes, many proofs and indications of the highest rank being given to the personage of Ahmad in the Qur'an, and the messengership of Muhammad and “Muhammadurrasûlullah”, which is held equivalent to the pillar of “Lâ Ilâha Illallah” by comprising four pillars of îmân, being the greatest haqiqahs in the universe, and the personage of Ahmad being the noblest of creatures, and his universal ma’nawî collective personality and sacred rank, which are described as the haqiqah of Muhammad (asm), being the most brilliant sun of the two worlds and his worthiness for this extraordinary rank have been proved decisively in the Risale-i Nur. One in a thousand of them is this:
Al-‘Allâm Al-Ghuyûb knew and saw that the haqiqah of Muhammad, which is his ma’nawî personality, in the future, will be a Tûbâ-tree of Jannah due to the equivalent of all the good works performed at all times by his whole ummah entering his book of good works through the principle of اَلسَّبَبُ كَالْفَاعِلِ4 , and his illuminating the haqiqahs of all the universe with the nûr he brought, and his making grateful not only the jinn, mankind, malâikah and living beings, but also the universe and the samâwât and earth, and through the testimony of the actual acceptance of the plants’ du'âs offered by the language of disposition and the animals’ du'âs offered by the language of fitrî need in front of our eyes, the millions even billions of his (asm) ummah’s sâlihs, whose fitrî and unrejectable du'âs are accepted, every day bequeathing first of all to him their ma’nawî gains and rahmah du'âs under the title of salâh and salâm for such personage, and since each of the three hundred thousand letters of the Qur'an yields from ten sawâb to a hundred and a thousand merits and fruits, only with regard to the recitation of the Qur'an by all his ummah, infinite nûrs entering into his book of deeds. According to that rank, He has given such immense importance in His Qur'an and He showed that receiving his shafâ’ah through following him and conforming to his sunnah is one of the most important matters of mankind in His Decree. And from time to time it takes into consideration his personality as a human and his state of humanity in his early life, which was a seed of that majestic Tûbâ-tree.
The Twenty-Fifth Word – The Flower of Emirdag
There are three great and universal instructors who describe our Rabb to us. One is this book of the universe that we heard a bit of its testimony from the Thirteenth Lesson of the Arabic Risale-i Nur via thirteen flashes. One is the Seal of the Prophets (Khâtam al-Anbiyâ) ‘Alayhissalâtu Wassalâm, the greatest âyah of this great book. The other is the Qur'an Great in Dignity. Now we must know and listen to the Seal of the Prophets (Khâtam al-Anbiyâ) ‘Alayhissalâtu Wassalâm, who is this second speaking proof.
Yes, look to the ma’nawî collective personality of that proof: The face of the earth is a masjîd, Mecca a mihrab5 and Medina a minbar6 . Our Prophet ‘Alayhissalâtu Wassalâm, who is the evident proof, is Imam to all the people of îmân, preacher to all mankind, chief of all the prophets, sayyid of all the awliyâ, the leader of the dhâkirs of a circle of the dhikr compounded from all the prophets and awliyâ. He is such a luminous tree, which all the prophets are its living roots and all the awliyâ are its fresh fruits that all the prophets, who rely on their miracles, and all the awliyâ, who rely on their karâmât, confirm and sign each of his claims. For, he says and claims لاَ اِلهَ اِلاَّ اللّٰهُ . All the left and right, that is to say, those luminous dhâkirs lined up in the past and the future, repeating the same word, through the consensus (ijmâ’), in a ma’nawî manner say: "صدقتَ و بالحق نطقت "7
The Nineteenth Word – The First Drop
Question: It is said that the Sahabah saw Ar-Rasûl Al-Akram ‘Alayhissalâtu Wassalâm, then they believed. However, we have believed without seeing him. In which case, our îmân is stronger. Also, there are riwâyât that indicate the strength of our îmân.
The Answer: While the general thoughts of the world were antagonistic and against the haqiqahs of Islam at that time, by only seeing Ar-Rasûl Al-Akram ‘Alayhissalâtu Wassalâm in the form of a human being, sometimes without miracles, the Sahabah gained such an îmân that all the general thoughts of the world could not shake their îmân and did not even give any waswasa to some of them, let alone doubts. As for you, you compare your îmân with the îmân of the Sahabah. There is no comparison between your îmân that falls into doubt and waswasa at the word of a European philosopher, although the general thoughts of Islam give strength to your îmân and are the proofs of your îmân and you see not the humanity and bodily form of Ar-Rasûl Al-Akram ‘Alayhissalâtu Wassalâm, which is the seed of the tûbâ-tree of nubuwwah but rather, with the mind's eye, his magnificent and luminous ma’nawî collective personality, which is illuminated through all the nûrs of Islam and haqiqahs of the Qur'an and surrounded by a thousand miracles, and with the îmân of the Sahabah that has not shaken in the face of the attacks of the entire world of kufr, Christians, Jews and philosophers. O the one who makes such a claim, there is no comparison between your faint îmân, which does not demonstrate the fardh completely on you due to being extremely weak, and with the intense taqwâ and perfect righteousness of the Sahabah, which demonstrate the strength of their îmân.
The Addendum to the Twenty-Seventh Word
The mana’wî collective personality of Dajjal and his current and Hazrat ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm and Christianity:
The bodily form of Dajjal is like a human being. He is a foolish shaytan and a cunning man, who calls his apparent, tyrannical rule ulûhiyyah, since he is proud and became a pharaoh and has forgotten Allah. But his huge current of irreligiousness which is his ma’nawî collective personality is extremely enormous. The fearsome descriptions of the Dajjal in the riwâyât indicate that. At one time, the commander-in-chief of the Japanese army was pictured with one of his feet in the Pacific Ocean and the other in Port Arthur, ten days' distance. Picturing that small Japanese commander in this way, the ma’nawî collective personality of his army was shown.
The Fifteenth Letter – The Answer to Your Fourth Question
The mystery of the Hadith in the meaning “At the âkhirzaman, Hazrat ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm will come and will act with the Sharî’ah of Muhammad (asm)” is this: at the âkhirzaman, at a time when by being purified and divested of superstition, the religion of Christianity is going to transform into Islam against the current of kufr and denial of the Ulûhiyyah given by the Naturalist philosophy, just as the ma’nawî collective personality of Christianity kills the fearsome ma’nawî collective personality of irreligion with the sword of samâwî wahy, so does Hazrat ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm — by representing the ma’nawî collective personality of Christianity — kill the Dajjal, who represents the ma’nawî collective personality of irreligion… That is, he will kill the idea of denial of Ulûhiyyah.
The First Letter
Those whose îmân is weak deem the matters of Hazrat ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm coming, acting with the Sharî’ah of Islam and killing the Dajjal, which are narrated in sahîh Hadith, to be improbable. If their haqiqah is explained, no place will remain to deem them to be improbable. It is as follows:
The meaning expressed by this Hadith and those Hadiths about the Sufyan and the Mahdi is this: at the âkhirzaman, two currents of irreligion will gain strength.
One of them: Under the veil of nifâq, a fearsome individual called Sufyan, who will deny the messengership of Ahmad (asm), will take the head of the people of nifâq and work to destroy the Sharî’ah of Islam. Against him, a luminous personage called Muhammad Mahdî from the Âl al-Bayt, who is tied to the luminous chain of Âl al-Bayt of the Prophet and who will take the head of the people of walayâh and the people of perfection, will kill and scatter that munâfiq current, which is the ma’nawî collective personality of Sufyan.
As for the second current: A current like that of Nimrod born of naturalist and materialist philosophy will gradually spread and gain strength at the âkhirzaman by means of materialist philosophy and reach a degree that will deny ulûhiyyah. Just as a savage man, who does not recognize the sultân and does not accept that the officials and individuals in the army are his soldiers, attributes a sort of sovereign and a kind of rulership to everyone and each soldier. In the same way, the individuals of that current, who deny Allah, attribute a rubûbiyyah to their nafs each of which is a little Nimrod. And as for the Dajjal, the greatest of them, who will take the head of them and will manifest terrible wonders from the sort of the events of spiritualism and hypnosis, he will go further and proclaim his ulûhiyyah by imagining his tyrannical and apparent rule to be a sort of rubûbiyyah. It is well-known how foolish buffoonery it is an impotent man, who is defeated by a fly and cannot create even a fly's wing, claiming ulûhiyyah.
Thus, at such a time, when that current seems to be very strong, the religion of true Christianity, which consists of the ma’nawî personality of Hazrat ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm, will emerge. That is, it will descend from the samâ of the rahmah of Allah; the present religion of Christianity will purify in the face of that haqiqah, divest from superstitions and corruptions and unite with the haqiqahs of Islam; in a ma’nawî manner, Christianity will transform into a sort of Islam. And being guided by the Qur'an, such ma’nawî collective personality of Christianity will remain in the station of a follower and Islam in the station of being followed; as a result of this joining, the haqq religion will gain immense power. By relying on the promise of a Qadîr over all things, a Mukhbir as-Sâdiq8 reported that Christianity and Islam, which were defeated by the current of irreligion when they were divided, as a result of the union while they have the capacity that will defeat and scatter the current of irreligion, the person of ‘Îsâ ‘Alayhissalâm, who is present in the ‘âlam of the samâwât with his human body, will take the head of that current of haqq religion. Since he has reported, it is haqq; since Al-Qadir over all things has promised it, He will certainly do it.
The Fifteenth Letter – The Answer to your fourth Question
The mana’wî collective personality of ‘Ali (ra):
If Shi'a the walâyah says: “Once the extraordinary perfections of Hazrat ‘Ali (ra) are accepted, it is not possible to prefer Hazrat Siddîq (ra) to him”.
The Answer: If the personal perfections of Hazrat Siddîq al-Akbar and Fâruq al-Â'zam (ra) and their perfections in the time of their khilâfah on the duty of the legacy of nubuwwah had been placed in the scale of a balance, and the extraordinary personal perfections of Hazrat ‘Ali (ra) and the struggles of khilâfah, which are subjected to prejudice and arise from the excruciating events he compellingly entered upon during the time of his khilâfah, in the other scale, certainly Ahl al-Sunnah saw that the scale of Hazrat Siddîq (ra), or Fâruq (ra), or Dhi'l-Nurayn (ra) weighed heavier and they preferred them to ‘Ali (ra).
Moreover, as is proved in the Twelfth and Twenty-Fourth Words, the degree of nubuwwah is so high in comparison to walâyah that an iota manifestation of it is preferable to a great manifestation of walâyah. From this point of view, the successes of Hazrat Siddîq al-Akbar (ra) and Fâruq al-Â'zam (ra) during the time of their khilâfah became a proof for Ahl al-Sunnah wa'l-Jamâ'ah that their share in point of the legacy of nubuwwah and the establishment of the laws of messengership had been bestowed abundantly by Allah. Since the personal perfections of Hazrat ‘Ali (ra) cannot invalidate such a great share arising from the legacy of nubuwwah, at the time of the khilâfah of Shaykhayn al-Mukarramayn9 , Hazrat ‘Ali (ra) became their Shaykh al-Islam and esteemed them. I wonder, how should the people of haqq and sunnah, who love and esteem Hazrat ‘Ali (ra), not love and esteem the Shaykhayn, whom Hazrat ‘Ali (ra) loved and esteemed earnestly? Let us explain this haqiqah with an example:
For example, from the legacy of a very rich man, twenty kilos of silver and four kilos of gold are given to one of his sons. Five kilos of silver and five kilos of gold are given to the other one. If the three kilos of silver and five kilos of gold are given to another brother, of course, the last two will receive less in quantity, but more in quality. Thus, like this example, the Shaykhayn's share of the gold of the haqiqah of closeness (Aqrabîyyah10 ) to Allah, which manifests in the legacy of nubuwwah and the establishment of the laws of messengership, being a little more prevails over the great amount of proximity (Qurbîyyah11 ) to Allah and the perfections of walâyah originated from the jewel of walâyah and personal perfections. While comparing them, these points should be considered. However, if they are compared with one another from the point of view of personal courage (shajâ'ah), ‘ilm and walâyah, the form of haqiqah would change.
Also, there can be no comparison in point of the ma’nawî collective personality of Âl al-bayt, which takes a form and appearance in the personage of Hazrat ‘Ali (ra), and of the haqiqah of Muhammad (asm), which manifests in that ma’nawî personality from the aspect of the absolute legacy. For, the immense mystery of the Prophet ‘Alayhissalâtu Wassalâm is there.
The Fourth Flash
It is necessary to consider Hazrat ‘Ali (ra) in two aspects. One is from the point of his personal perfections and rank. The second is from the point of his representing the ma’nawî collective personality of Âl al-bayt. As for the ma’nawî collective personality of Âl al-bayt, it displays a sort of essence of Ar-Rasûl Al-Akram ‘Alayhissalâtu Wassalâm.
Thus, regarding the first point, foremost Hazrat ‘Ali (ra), all the people of haqiqah give precedence to Hazrat Abu Bakr and Hazrat Umar (ra). They saw their ranks as higher in the service of Islam and proximity (Qurbîyyah) to Allah. Regarding the second point, Hazrat ‘Ali (ra) cannot be compared with anyone in respect of being the representative of the ma’nawî collective personality of Âl al-bayt and the ma’nawî collective personality of Âl al-bayt representing a haqiqah of Muhammad (asm). Thus, the extraordinary praising Hadiths of the Prophet about Hazrat ‘Ali (ra) look to this second point. There is a sahîh riwâyât which corroborates this haqiqah that Ar-Rasûl Al-Akram ‘Alayhissalâtu Wassalâm decreed: “The descendants of each prophet are from himself. My descendants are those of ‘Ali (ra).”
The Fourth Flash
People, who possess the same aim and work to attain that aim through following the same principles, form a mana’wî collective personality like the limbs and members of a body or cogs of a factory.
As an example of the mana’wî collective personality of a group (jamâ’ah), the mana’wî collective personality of Nur students:
For just as one of man's hands does not compete with his other hand, one of his eyes does not criticize his other eye, his tongue does not object to his ear, the heart does not see the fault of rûh, they rather complete the deficiencies of one another, veil their faults, assist their need and help in their duty; otherwise, the life of that man's being would extinguish, his rûh would flee and his body would decompose. And just as the cogs of a factory do not struggle with one another with rivalry; by preceding each other, they do not domineer; by seeing each other’s faults, they do not criticize, shatter other's eagerness for work and make them fall into idleness. They rather assist with all their dispositions in order to direct each other’s motions toward the common aim; they walk towards the purpose of their creation in true solidarity and alliance. If one iota of opposition or domination interferes, it will disorder the factory and cause it to be fruitless and barren. Then the factory's owner will break and destroy the factory entirely.
Thus, O Risale-i Nur students and servants of the Qur'an! You and we are members of such a ma’nawî collective personality worthy of the title of perfect man… and the cogs of a factory that produces eternal happiness within eternal life… and servants working in a ship of Ar-Rabb that will disembark the ummah of Muhammad (asm) at Dâr as-Salâm12 , the shore of salâmât. We are surely in need of and obliged to solidarity and true union through gaining the mystery of ikhlas that provides the mana’wî strength of one thousand one hundred eleven from four individuals. Yes, if three alifs13 do not unite, they have the value of three. If they unite, they acquire the value of one hundred and eleven through the mystery of numbers. If four times four are apart from each other, they have the value of sixteen.
If through the mystery of brotherhood (ukhuwwah) and unity on aim and alliance on duty, they correspond and stand shoulder to shoulder on a line, they have the strength and value of four thousand four hundred and forty-four. Numerous historical events testify to the value and mana’wî strength of sixteen self-sacrificing brothers being over four thousand through the true mystery of ikhlas.
The Twenty-First Flash – Your Second Principle
One who reads these risales and lessons for a year through understanding and accepting can become an important ‘âlim possessing haqiqah of this time. And even if he does not understand them, since the Risale-i Nur students have a ma’nawî collective personality, indubitably that ma’nawî collective personality is an ‘âlim of this time. As for your pens, they are the fingers of that ma’nawî collective personality. In my own view, although I am not worthy of it, in consequence of your good opinion of me, at the point of being followers, you have given this poor man the position of being ustadh and ‘âlim, therefore, you have attached yourselves to me. Since I am unlettered and without the pen, your pens are considered mine; you will receive the reward indicated in the hadith.
The Twenty-First Flash – A Confidential Letter to Some of My Brothers
Yes, just as walâyah has karâmât, so does the pure intention and so does sincerity. Especially earnest, sincere cooperation among brothers within a sphere of brotherhood (ukhuwwah), which is for the sake of Allah, may have many karâmât. Even the ma’nawî collective personality of such a jamâ’ah may be a perfected walî and becomes the place of manifestation for the ‘inâyah.
Thus, O my brothers and my friends in the service of the Qur’an! Just as how dhulm and an error is to give all the honour and booty to the sergeant of a troop, who conquers a castle, in the same way, you cannot ascribe the ‘inâyah in the victories that occurred through the strength of your ma’nawî collective personality and your pens to an unfortunate like me! Certainly, there is a sign from the ghayb in such a blessed jamâ’ah, more powerful than the tawâfuqs from the ghayb and I see it, but I cannot show it to everyone and the public.
The Twenty-Eight Letter – The Seventh Matter which is the Seventh Risale – 2nd Sign
My brothers! The most dangerous aspect of ananiyyah in our work is jealousy. If it is not purely for the sake of Allah, jealousy interferes and spoils it. Just as one of a person's hands do not jealous of the other, his eye does not envy his ear and his heart does not compete with his mind, in the same way, each of you is a sense and a member of the ma’nawî collective personality of our assembly. To take pride and pleasure in one another's virtues is a duty of your conscience, let alone rivalry against each other.
The Twenty-Ninth Letter – The Sixth Section which is the Sixth Risale – 5th Wile of Shaytan
The mana’wî collective personality of sharr currents:
While I was preoccupied with that sight in Eskisehir Prison, a ma’nawî collective personality, which gives currency to dissipation and dhalâlah, stood before me like a shaytan among man and said:14
“We want to experience and make others experience all kinds of pleasures and joys of life; don't interfere with us!”
The Eleventh Ray – The Third Matter
When the representative of the people of dhalâlah could not find anything on which to build his dhalâlah and to hold on and he was silenced, he says the following:
“Since, in my opinion, I see the world’s happiness and the pleasure of life, and the progress of civilization and perfection of arts and craft in the love of the world, freedom and relying on myself and in not thinking of the âkhirah and not recognizing Allah,15 I urged most men onto this way, through the assistance of shaytan, and I continue to urge.”
The Thirty-Second Word – The Third Stopping Place – The Second Point of The Second Discussion
In the riwâyât, the extraordinary power of the individuals of the âkhirzaman was mentioned. 16 وَ الْعِلْمُ عِنْدَ اللّٰهِ , its interpretation is this:
It is an allusion to the greatness of the ma’nawî personality those individuals represent. Just as, at one time, the form of the Japanese Commander-in-Chief, who had defeated Russia, was shown his one foot in the Pacific Ocean and the other foot in the fort of Port Arthur, so the fearsome greatness of the ma’nawî collective personality was shown in the representative of that personality and in the huge statues of that representative. As for their extraordinary and wondrous power, since most of their works are destruction and related to the desires of the nafs, they appear to have extraordinary power, for destruction is easy. One match burns down a village. As for the desires of the nafs, since the nafs of people support it, it spreads quickly.
The Fifth Ray – The Tenth Matter
1 (“Be!” And it is!)
2 (The cause is like the doer)
4 (The cause is like the doer)
6 (The platform in the mosque from which an Imam addresses the congregation and delivers sermons (khutbah), and is located to the right of the mihrab.) (Tr.)
8 [Veracious informer. Hazrat Muhammad (asm)] (Tr.)
9 [Two honoured Shaykhs who were dignified by Allah. Abu Bakr (ra) and ‘Umar Fâruq (ra)] (Tr.)
11 (Man’s proximity to Allah. Man’s getting closer to Allah by his own endeavour.) (Tr.)
13 (The first letter of the Arabic alphabet consisting of a vertical line.) (Tr.)
14 Thus, like the stories of the Tenth Word and Twenty-Second Word, the stories in the other Words are the sorts from among allusions that the extremely correct, extremely true haqiqahs at the end of the stories, which conform to reality, are the allusive meanings of those stories. Their literal meanings are comparisons functioning like a telescope. However they may be, it does not harm their sidq and truthfulness. Moreover, each of those stories is a comparison. Purely to make people, in general, comprehend, the language of being is shown in the form of speech and the ma’nawî collective personality in the form of a physical individual.
The Thirty-Second Word – The Second Stopping Place – The Conclusion of the Second Aim – The Answer to the Second Question
The fool man in the story and his trustworthy friend have three haqiqahs:
The first: My nafs al-ammarah and my heart;
The Second: The students of philosophy and the students of Al-Qur’an Al-Hakîm;
The Third: The nation of kufr and the ummah of Islam.
The most terrible dhalâlah of the students of philosophy, the people of kufr and nafs al-ammarah lies in not recognizing Janâb-i Haqq.
The Tenth Word – Introduction – First Indication